Evaluation expérimentale des performances des systèmes de ventilation dans le bâtiment : efficacité de ventilation et confort thermique

Abstract : The performance of a system must be well defined, attainable and above all measurable. This is not the case today for ventilation. On the one hand ventilation performance is usually declined on energy efficiency considerations or simply on a rough estimation of ventilation rates. The performance related to thermal comfort and IAQ are addressed separately through dedicated evaluation tools. On the other hand, the existing evaluation tools today are nowadays limited in their practical applications for in situ measurements, in particular in the case of natural and mixed ventilation. The aim of the present thesis is to examine the existing experimental technics, at full scale building in order to propose improvements on evaluation methods and commissioning protocols. The present thesis deals with ventilation performance taking into account ventilation efficiency as intrinsic performance and thermal comfort as overall performance.The first part is devoted to the in situ assessment of intrinsic ventilation performance (ventilation rates, mean age of air, and air exchange efficiency), based on decay tracer gas techniques. After a theorical analysis of the various performance indexes and their corresponding measurement techniques, an experimental study was carried out in a classroom under different ventilation strategies (mechanical, natural & mixed mode). The analysis proved the importance of the application of the tracer gas decay on ventilation rates accuracy with in particular a strong influence of measurement times and used tracer gas concentration. A methodology has been adapted and tested for the measurement of the air exchange efficiency in natural and mixed mode ventilation, by avoiding measurements in exhaust vents (a technique usually used and advocated by current standards).The second part is devoted to in situ assessment of thermal comfort under different ventilation strategies. Different methods, standards and evaluation techniques were tested and compared with occupants’ perception. The results demonstrated the presence of several inadequacies during the implementation of existing methods and standards. Mainly, it concerns the inadequacy of static methods (PMV PPD) for thermal comfort assessment in the presence of fluctuating thermal conditions, even with mechanical ventilation. Uncertainty analysis related to measurement errors has demonstrated the incoherence of current standards in the classification of comfort categories.
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Yacine Allab. Evaluation expérimentale des performances des systèmes de ventilation dans le bâtiment : efficacité de ventilation et confort thermique. Génie des procédés. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017ENAM0046⟩. ⟨tel-01708316⟩

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