Au code, citoyens : mise en technologies des problèmes publics

Abstract : The PhD dissertation studies new digital participative technologies called "civic apps", applications for mobile and web developed in response to a large scope of public problems and based on the principle of crowdsourcing. The research focuses on the conception of these tools, their usages and the way these tools transform the communication among citizens and between citizens and public administrations. It also explores new formats of civic tech innovation, such as civic hackathons, and question the usage of programming code as a new tool of collective action.The thesis calls upon the methodologies of sociology of science and technology, sociology of public problems, political science and science of information and communication. Based on a case-study of several civic apps in France and Russia, the inquiry adresses the following question: how does the translation of public problems into programming code occur ? And how do these applications transform civic participation?The research shows that the interfaces standardize and format the practices of participation, using documents such as laws, technical norms and standards. However, this standardization has its limits. Focusing on the moments of failure and trial, such as tests, updates or debug of applications, the inquiry highlights the practices of bricolage and detournement, deployed by users in order to overcome the framing by design and participate in the rewriting of the applications.The thesis compares civic applications with the applications developed by public administrations and distinguishes two models of communication called the "long chains" and the "short chains". However, instead of opposing administrative and civic initiatives, the thesis proposes to think from "in-between", analyzing the articulations and arrangements of these socio-technical networks.
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Kseniia Ermoshina. Au code, citoyens : mise en technologies des problèmes publics. Sciences de l'information et de la communication. PSL Research University, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PSLEM072⟩. ⟨tel-01712465⟩

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