La gestion de projets à enjeux : engagement et résilience

Abstract : Successive evaluations of French Military hospitals by the Court of Auditors point out a sub-activity that generates a deficit. The French Military Health Care Service acknowledged these points but considers that military activities (in particular participation in External Operation), may explain, at least partly, the deficit and sub-activity mentioned by the Court of Auditors.This practical question feeds the theoretical reflection conducted in this thesis. A detailed description of external operations shows that they can be considered as soft projects. These projects are characterized by the progressive determination of their goals: that are not completely known when the project starts. The literature questions adequacy of project management standards to soft projects and the following research question emerges: what is the role of stakeholders’ engagement and planning flexibility in soft projects management?The thesis is based on an intervention research. A simulation is built to objectify external operations management in military hospitals. It highlights the impact of external operations on care production and consequently on hospitals ‘deficit. Two analyses are conducted to understand the causes of this impact. First, an analysis of the current planning process of external operations suggests that renewing planning methods can be necessary to offer a flexible planning based on cooperation. Second, the simulation reveals the important role of physicians and nurses’ commitment in managing external operations. This commitment, driven by strong relationships between project stakeholders, positively influences external operations’ outcomes.These observations allow theoretical progress on management tools for soft projects.Two concepts seem particularly suited to soft projects’ constraints: interactive planning developed in companies facing high uncertainties and relational contracting described by law and economics scholars. Interactive planning brings both flexibility and cooperation that appear decisive to build a response to soft goals. Relational contracts help understand how high commitment can bring simultaneously motivation and adaptability, that are both essential to achieve soft goals.To conclude, I suggest structuring projects’ space according to the degree of determination of projects’ goals and the degree of stakeholders’ engagement in the project. These dimensions allow defining areas where project management standards will be applicable and those where they might need to be adapted to soft projects. The diversity of soft projects (public sector, international development, organizational change) calls for such a structure that can facilitate the spread of specific management tools.
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Jane Despatin. La gestion de projets à enjeux : engagement et résilience. Gestion et management. PSL Research University, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PSLEM078⟩. ⟨tel-01713689⟩

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