Stabilité d'une onde de gravité interne, analyse locale, globale et croissance transitoire.

Abstract : Internal gravity waves that exist in a continuously stratified fluid are particularly important in the ocean. They transport energy and are thought to generate turbulent mixing, which contribute to the deep ocean circulation.We generate an internal wave beam that propagates in a continuously stratified fluid with direct numerical simulations. This situation is equivalent to a tidal wave, where the tidal flow oscillates over a topography and generates a wave. Experimental results obtained by cite{Bourget13} are recovered, ie. the beam destabilizes into a small scale mode. We consider the effect of an horizontal mean flow on the instability and lower the forcing frequency in order to compensate for the doppler effect and to keep locally the same wave. A limit case appears when the forcing becomes stationary. This case is equivalent to a lee wave appearing when a stratified fluid flows over a topography.For small mean flow, small scale instabilities develop as in the tidal case. The beam then stabilizes at intermediate mean flows and destabilizes again for increasing flow speed. At this second threshold, down to the lee wave case, the instability is of much larger scale than for the tidal case. Varying the Reynolds number, the Froude number, the wave angle or the beam size doesn't affect the instability scale selection : a small scale instability in the tidal regime, and large scale instability in the lee regime.We show that the instability mechanism may be interpreted using the triadic instability. Scale selection corresponds to different branches of triadic resonance. We confirm the presence of a stability region for intermediate value of the mean advection velocity by computing the linear eigenmode as Floquet mode with an Arnoldi-Krylov technique and show that the leading eigenmode has a negative growth rate.In the lee wave, case the flow is unstable and a selective frequency damping method cite{Akervik06} is used to compute a steady base flow. We then implement a linear direct-adjoint method to compute the optimal perturbations that maximizes the total energy at different time horizons. At short time horizon, the optimal perturbation is small scale while at large time the perturbation switches to a large scale solution and converges to the large scale mode observed through the nonlinear simulations. Short time transients correspond to the small scale triadic instability advected by the flow whereas the long time large scale instability corresponds to large scale branch of the triadic instability that is able to sustain the flow.We propose an interpretation of the selection of these different instabilities in term of absolute and convective instability. In the case of the lee wave, the large scale instability is absolute whereas the small scale instability is convective (and dominates the short time transient growth because it has a larger local growth rate). When the mean flow is varied, the properties of small scale and large scale instabilities exchange: in the tidal case the short scale instability is absolute and the large scale convective. This conjecture is confirmed by computing the impulse response around a plane monochromatic internal gravity wave in an extended two dimensional periodic domain. The spatio temporal evolution of a perturbation localized in space and time points out the formation of three different wave packets corresponding to different branches of triadic instability. Using the triadic theory with finite detuning cite{McEwan77},we derive the group velocity at the maximum growth rate of the three different branches of triadic instability and find a good agreement with the velocity of the three wave paquet maxima in the impulse response. Analyzing the impulse response along rays, i.e. at x/t and z/tconstant, we compute the absolute growth rate along all possible rays and validate our conjecture.
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Gaétan Lerisson. Stabilité d'une onde de gravité interne, analyse locale, globale et croissance transitoire.. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLX017⟩. ⟨tel-01739612⟩

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