Modélisation de la fracturation naturelle des sédiments : impacts sur la modélisation de bassin

Abstract : Basin modeling is commonly used to describe basin's evolution from a reconstruction of its history. During the geological processes modeling, the transfer properties of sediments can change significantly due to natural fracturing and therefore may constitute preferential flow paths or barrier that control hydrocarbons migration and accumulation. In petroleum industry, and especially for exploration, the knowledge of natural fracturing processes and history enhances the prediction of overpressures, potential location of hydrocarbon storage and matrix equivalent permeability. At significant depth, nucleation of fractures and initiation are triggered at existing defects, but the loads behind its initiation are unknown or poorly characterized. In sedimentary basin, fracture mechanical and geometrical properties are directly related to the processes from which it comes. Fracture initiation at depth can arise from by many processes such as deposition, tectonic and erosion processes. The aim of the thesis is to provide an improvement in the characterization of fracture initiation in basin modeling by using a numerical modeling of fracture network and its evolution under hydro mechanical loading. During sedimentation, buried rocks are subjected to an increase in vertical stress. This increase leads to a decrease of porosity that is commonly called mechanical compaction. Indeed, the mechanical compaction depending on its rate and on the permeability of the burden rocks, can induce significant overpressures. Thus, a competition is initiated between the dissipation of fluid overpressure and sedimentation rate, and may result in fracture initiation. For analytical study of fracture initiation, a synthetic geologic structure is used. The analytical solution analytical solution of the pressure and stresses in a sealing formation is proposed under sedimentation by superposing two problems of poroelasticity. This analytical solution and a fracturing criterion are used to predict the initiation and propagation of the fracture. The fracture propagation and growth are studied by numerical simulations based on a finite element code dedicated to fractured porous media called Porofis. The numerical model contains defects initially closed and homogeneously distributed. The fractures are modeled with a constitutive model undergoing damage and the flow is described by Poiseuille’s law. The effect of hydromechanical coupling on dynamicevolution of fracture spacing using synthetic geological structure for basin modeling are also studied
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Zady Ouraga. Modélisation de la fracturation naturelle des sédiments : impacts sur la modélisation de bassin. Géotechnique. Université Paris-Est, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC1165⟩. ⟨tel-01743714⟩

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