Ressuage des matériaux cimentaires : origine physique et changement d'échelle

Abstract : Due to the density differences between the solid mineral components and the suspending water, gravity can induce phase separation in concrete. This phase separation is at the origin of the formation of a film of water on the upper surface of fresh concrete, commonly known as bleeding. Although bleeding is known to directly or indirectly affect the final properties of hardened concrete, the existing knowledge does not allow for the prediction of this phenomenon or its correlation to mix proportions. The objective of this thesis, therefore, is to identify the physics behind the bleeding phenomenon in order to propose both an adapted measurement methodology and a predictive theoretical framework.The approach adopted is to start from the study of a simple model material, a cement paste in the laboratory, and upscale to the more complex scale of concrete poured into a real foundation on site.In the first part, our experimental results on cement paste suggest that bleeding cannot be simply described as the consolidation of a soft porous material, but, in fact, is of an obvious heterogeneous nature leading to the formation of preferential water extraction channels within the cement paste. We thus show the existence of three bleeding regimes: an induction period, an acceleration period, and a consolidation period. Only the last two regimes had been observed and discussed in the literature. Our results suggest that the formation of these preferential channels seems to be initiated by system defects (air bubbles at first order).In the second part, the two industrial standard tests used for the measurement of bleeding on site, the ASTM test and the Bauer test, are studied. We show that these tests capture different aspects of bleeding, and therefore, cannot be correlated. We also show the existence of limits in the capacity of these tests to capture the risk of bleeding for a given concrete. Changes and improvements are proposed in order to enable these tests to provide the data necessary for the prediction of bleeding at the concrete foundation scale.Finally, in the last part, we study the differences between the bleeding of a cement paste and the bleeding of a concrete and the influence of the total height of material subjected to bleeding. The high dependence of the bleeding rate on the depth of the foundation is captured in the case of concretes. A model is proposed to extrapolate a bleeding rate in a foundation from a bleeding measurement using the ASTM test. This model is validated on laboratory tests and on onsite measurements of real concrete foundations.Keywords: bleeding, concrete, cement paste, consolidation, scale effect
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Nadia Massoussi. Ressuage des matériaux cimentaires : origine physique et changement d'échelle. Matériaux. Université Paris-Est, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC1146⟩. ⟨tel-01743758⟩

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