Potentiel d’utilisation de la spectrofluorimétrie 3D pour la caractérisation en ligne de la matière organique dissoute : de la station d’épuration au milieu récepteur

Abstract : The work carried out during this PhD, in close collaboration with the Development and Prospective Development Department (DDP) of the Interdepartmental Syndicate for the Sanitation of the Paris Metropolitan Area (SIAAP), is part of the research program MOCOPEE (Research Modeling, Control and Optimization of Water Treatment Processes) and are interested in the potential applications of 3D spectrofluorimetry to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) quantity and quality in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and in natural middle. The first part of this manuscript is devoted to the potential applications of 3D fluorescence spectroscopy to characterize wastewater DOM quality and quality. A methodology for the treatment of 3D fluorescence spectra based on the use of a deconvolution algorithm named PARAFAC has been applied to wastewater from the Seine Center WWTP. Specific MOD fluorophores were observed, allowing a finer approach to the fluorescence characteristics of MOD. Resin fractionation and a biodegradability study yielded new information on raw sewage DOM fluorophores. Relationships between DOM fluorescence indicators and soluble Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) measurements as well as soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) measurements have been demonstrated in raw sewage from 6 Parisian WWTP (SIAAP). Prediction models of soluble BOD5 and soluble COD by 3D spectrofluorimetry can be used to anticipate variations of raw sewage quality and quantity, and to optimize biological treatment processes (eg reagent additions). Finally, DOM fluorescence was analyzed along "Seine Center" and "Seine Grésillons" WWTPs. The second part deals with applications potential of 3D fluorescence spectroscopy in natural middles. Thanks to the MeSeine monitoring network (Mesure en Seine), a total of 373 samples were taken during a weekly monitoring from July 2015 to June 2016 in the Seine catchment area and include 12 sampling points from upstream to downstream of Paris and two of its main tributaries (Marne river and Oise river). From this monitoring, a PARAFAC model with 10 components was highlighted. Variations in DOM quality were observed between the different streams studied. The impact of urban pressure on DOM quality was also observed by fluorescence, between the upstream and downstream of the Parisian agglomeration. We have also been able to monitor WWTP effluent impacts on the Seine during a maintenance operation for its treatment processes. Variations in the quality of MOD between low and high water periods were also observed. Thus, 3D spectrofluorimetry help to provide a rapid physicochemical characterization of DOM and its sources in urban aquatic environments. Theses information will help drinking water plants managers to rapidly know DOM quality to anticipate formation of disinfections by-products. Managers of aquatic environments will also be able to anticipate occurrence of surface water pollution episodes. Finally, 3D fluorescence spectroscopy and absorbance spectroscopy were combined to develop a dissolved organic carbon concentration prediction model. The findings highlighted by this work will contribute, on their scale, to a better understanding of DOM fluorescence in raw sewage water (optimization of biological treatment channels) and in aquatic environments. In this sense, the usefulness of this type of work is not limited to the scientific community, but extends to managers and the operational fields
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Angélique Goffin. Potentiel d’utilisation de la spectrofluorimétrie 3D pour la caractérisation en ligne de la matière organique dissoute : de la station d’épuration au milieu récepteur. Ingénierie de l'environnement. Université Paris-Est, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC1218⟩. ⟨tel-01743810⟩

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