Contribution à la fiabilisation de la modélisation numérique de l’usinage de pièces en titane

Abstract : Machining of titanium alloys workpieces, especially in Ti6Al4V which has a low machinability, has always been among the major preoccupations of the companies in the aeronautics sector. However, it is difficult, basing only on experimental tests, to well understand the mechanisms involved during the chip formation. In fact, the use of reliable numerical models that allow the access to instantaneous and very localized physical quantities is required. The presented work consists on the increase of the cutting modeling reliability. 2D and 3D numerical simulations have been performed. The Johnson-Cook constitutive model and the damage evolution criterion have been used. The preliminary 2D study focused on the mesh effect, especially the size of the finite element, its type and its interpolation function, has highlighted the importance of a convenient discretization of the model that takes into account the machining computing cost. In addition, it has been shown that a suitable choice of the formulation type is crucial. The effect of the rheological and damage (initiation and evolution) coefficients on the chip formation (morphology, strain and temperature field) has been determined. Experimental orthogonal cutting tests of the Ti6Al4V at different cutting conditions have been performed. The dependency of the chip geometry and the efforts to the cutting speed and the feed rate has been studied. Experimental results have been used in the validation of the 3D numerical models, which allow a deep study of the chip formation process. This approach has allowed an accurately reproduction of the physical phenomena that occurs in the median plan of the workpiece as well as in its sides. The predicted results have highlighted that, even in the case of orthogonal cutting process, the chip formation is a 3D phenomenon. In order to increase the reliability of 3D numerical models, a new thermo-visco-plastic law has been proposed. This law, identified and implemented in the software Abqus® through the subroutine VUMAT©, has been used to model machining process of the Ti6Al4V. It has resulted in a notable improvement of numerical results.
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Mariem Yaich. Contribution à la fiabilisation de la modélisation numérique de l’usinage de pièces en titane. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM; Laboratoire d'analyses alimentaires (Sfax, Tunisie), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017ENAM0036⟩. ⟨tel-01746454⟩

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