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Piano acoustics : string’s double polarisation and piano source identification

Abstract : The objective of this thesis is to improve the understanding of the acoustics of the piano in the context of physically-based sound synthesis. The manuscript is decomposed in three parts, the first two being devoted to the undertsanding of the origin of the double polarisation in piano string, while the third one is dedicated to the identification of sound sources of a complete piano.In the first part, the geometric (large-amplitude) nonlinearity is studied in order to understand if the nonlinear coupling can transfer energy to an initially non excited polarisation, thus leading to the double polarisation phenomenon. A multiple-scaleanalysis is conducted on a Kirchhoff-Carrier string model with fixed boundary conditions at both ends. Each polarisation is restrained to its fundamental mode, leading to two oscillors having nearly equal eigenfrequencies, and thus presenting a 1:1 internal resonance. The existence condition and stability criteria for double polarisation to occur are obtained and validated numerically based on the complete Kirchhoff-Carrier equations, as well as a more enriched third-order string model. Experiments are carried out on a monochord setup where the natural polarisation angles of the string, detuning between the two polarisations and its nonlinear behaviour are observed and identified.The second part is devoted to the string/bridge coupling. The degrees of freedom of the string are coupled to the bridge whose translational and rotational motions are respresented by a set of oscillators. The eigenfrequencies of various coupled systems are analysed. Numerical schemes are proposed and implemented where the string is solved via high-order finite-element method while the lumped bridge is solved analytically and coupled to the string by Lagrange multipliers. Experimentally, the string is strung over a bridge in a zig-zag configuration and excited vertically and horizontally. In both cases, double polarisation and double decay are observed and similar results are also obtained qualitatively in numerical models.The last part is devoted to a quantitative description of the vibroacoustic sources of a Bösendorfer 280VC-9 piano via operational transfer path analysis. The contribution of the soundboard, inner and outer rim, iron frame and lid are investigated in the frequency domain. It is found out that the soundboard is the primary contributor but the iron frame and the lid also play a significant role, especially at high frequencies.
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Submitted on : Friday, March 30, 2018 - 11:44:08 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, May 11, 2022 - 3:14:02 PM


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  • HAL Id : tel-01755039, version 1


Jin Jack Tan. Piano acoustics : string’s double polarisation and piano source identification. Acoustics [physics.class-ph]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLY014⟩. ⟨tel-01755039⟩



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