Analyse multi-échelle du comportement hygromécanique du bois : Mise en évidence par relaxométrie du proton et mesures de champs volumiques de l'influence de l'hétérogénéité au sein du cerne

Abstract : Wood has highly variable properties and is also hygroscopic. These characteristics may restrict its use in construction even if it can be considered as a material of choice with the current environmental and economical concerns. Therefore, it is essential to better understand the physical origins of the behavior of wood in order to improve the prediction of its properties, and making it competitive with respect to other building materials. Dimensional changes of wood appear when it is subjected to relative humidity variations. This hygromechanical behavior is particularly difficult to predict because of the multiscale structure of wood and its complex interactions with water.In this context, the present work aims to understand and enrich relationships between microstructure, sorption properties and hygromechanical behavior of wood. More specifically, it is focused on the influence of the growth-ring heterogeneity, constituted of earlywood and latewood which have different structures and properties. The study is performed on Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), which is a species of significant interest for structural applications. Advanced characterization tools are used: proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to characterize sorption mechanisms; digital volume correlation (DVC) to measure deformation fields from X-Ray microtomography 3D images (XRµT), also providing local density of wood.At first wood properties and its hygromechanical behavior are described through a literature overview. Preliminary microstructural (microfibril angle, growth-ring width, density) and hygromechanical behavior characterizations of earlywood and latewood samples with different cambium age are performed. Earlywood reveals a strong anisotropic behavior compared to latewood which is isotropic in the transversal plane. Moreover, strains along the fiber direction nonlinearly evolve with moisture content. This phenomenon has been hardly reported and studied in the literature. Discussions on variability of properties and on relationships between structure and properties are also initiated.Sorption mechanisms are then studied by 2D NMR relaxometry (T1-T2 correlation spectra) in order to investigate differences between earlywood and latewood hygromechanical behaviors. Two types of bound water located in distinct environments are highlighted and their sorption isotherms are shown to be different in the two types of wood. A hypothesis on their location in the cell-wall is proposed and a simple 2D model is developed to evaluate their respective effect on the hygromechanical behavior of earlywood and latewood, especially in the fiber direction.Furthermore, local and global strains fields are studied using DVC from XRµT images of earlywood and latewood subjected to relative humidity variations. The coupling of these two materials is also investigated in order to evaluate their mechanical interactions and to understand the behavior at the growth-ring scale. A specific DVC procedure is developed for images of wood. The hygromechanical behaviors of earlywood, latewood and a growth-ring are compared. At the local scale, strains fields heterogeneities are highlighted and correlated to the local density. Their effect on the growth-ring behavior and the samples curvature is analyzed. A 3D finite elements model which takes into account local gradients of properties is finally developed to better understand earlywood-latewood mechanical interactions
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Marie Bonnet. Analyse multi-échelle du comportement hygromécanique du bois : Mise en évidence par relaxométrie du proton et mesures de champs volumiques de l'influence de l'hétérogénéité au sein du cerne. Matériaux. Université Paris-Est, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC1042⟩. ⟨tel-01759286⟩

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