I. and L. Mémento-inventaire-forestier, La forêt en chiffres et en cartes, 2016.

N. Hoyet, Matériaux et architecture durable, Dunod éd

A. D. Amecourt, F. Houllier, P. Lemas, and J. , Sève, «Plan recherche et innovation 2025 pour la filière forêt-bois. Synthèse pour décideurs, 2016.

M. Ashby and D. Cebon, Materials selection in mechanical design, Le Journal de Physique IV, vol.03, issue.C7, pp.7-8, 1993.
DOI : 10.1051/jp4:1993701

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/jpa-00251707

M. Moutee, Modélisation du comportement mécanique du bois au cours du séchage, 2006.

P. Navi and F. Heger, Comportement thermo-hydromécanique du bois, 2005.

J. D. Boyd, «An anatomical explanation for visco-elastic and mechano-sorptive creep in wood, and effects of loading rate on stregth,» New perspectives in wood anatomy, pp.171-222, 1982.

L. Salmén, Micromechanical understanding of the cell-wall structure, Comptes Rendus Biologies, vol.327, issue.9-10, pp.873-880, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.crvi.2004.03.010

E. T. Engelund, L. G. Thygesen, S. Svensson, and C. A. Hill, A critical discussion of the physics of wood???water interactions, Wood Science and Technology, vol.533, issue.2, pp.141-161, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tca.2012.01.015

R. Hernandez, «Moisture sorption properties of hardwoods as affected by their extraneous substances, wood density, and interlocked grain, Wood and Fiber Science, vol.39, issue.n°11, pp.132-145, 2007.

R. Hernandez, «Swelling properties of hardwoods as affected by their extraneous substances, wood density and interlocked grains, Wood and Fiber Science, vol.39, issue.n°11, pp.146-158, 2007.

R. Rowell, The chemistry of solid wood, 1984.
DOI : 10.1021/ba-1984-0207

J. Bossu, J. Beauchêne, Y. Estevez, and C. , Duplais et B. Clair, «New insights on wood dimensional stability influences by secondary metabolites: the case of a fast-growing tropical species Bagassa guianensis Aubl, PLoS ONE, vol.11, 2016.

P. Perré and E. Badel, «De l'eau dans l'arbre à l'eau dans le matériau bois : une introduction,» Revue Forestière Française, pp.305-315, 2006.

S. Brunauer, L. S. Deming, and W. , On a Theory of the van der Waals Adsorption of Gases, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.62, issue.7, pp.1723-1732, 1940.
DOI : 10.1021/ja01864a025

I. U. , K. S. Sing, D. H. Everett, R. A. Haul, L. Moscou et al., «Reporting physisorption data for gas/solid systems with special reference to the determination of surface area and porosity, Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol.57, pp.14-603, 1985.

S. Brunauer and P. Emmett, Teller, «Adsorption of gases in multimolecular layers, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.60, pp.12-309, 1938.

R. Dent, A Multilayer Theory for Gas Sorption, Textile Research Journal, vol.42, issue.2, pp.145-152, 1977.
DOI : 10.1080/19447022408661314

A. Hailwood and S. Horrobin, Absorption of water by polymers: analysis in terms of a simple model, Transactions of the Faraday Society, vol.42, pp.84-92, 1946.
DOI : 10.1039/tf946420b084

W. Willems, Abstract, Holzforschung, vol.0, issue.0, pp.67-75, 2015.
DOI : 10.1515/hf-2014-0069

K. Kulasinski, R. Guyer, D. Derome, and J. Carmeliet, Water Adsorption in Wood Microfibril-Hemicellulose System: Role of the Crystalline???Amorphous Interface, Biomacromolecules, vol.16, issue.9, pp.2972-2978, 2015.
DOI : 10.1021/acs.biomac.5b00878

D. Derome, M. Griffa, M. Koebel, and J. Carmeliet, Hysteretic swelling of wood at cellular scale probed by phase-contrast X-ray tomography, Journal of Structural Biology, vol.173, issue.1, pp.180-190, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jsb.2010.08.011

T. Neimsuwan, S. Wang, A. Taylor, and T. Rials, Statics and kinetics of water vapor sorption of small loblolly pine samples, Wood Science and Technology, vol.44, issue.8, pp.493-506, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s00226-007-0165-2

V. Sharrat, C. Hill, J. Zaihan, and D. P. Kint, «The influence of photodegradation and weathering on the water vapour sorption kinetic behaviour of scots pines earlywood and latewood,» Polymer degradation and stability, pp.17-1210, 2011.

D. Guitard, Mécanique du matériau bois et composites, CEPADUES-EDITIONS éd, 1987.

F. Kollmann and W. Côté, Principles of Wood Science and Technology. I -Solid Wood, 1968.

K. Persson, Micromechanical modelling of wood and fibre properties, 2000.

F. Farruggia and P. Perré, Microscopic tensile tests in the transverse plane of earlywood and latewood parts of spruce, Wood Science and Technology, vol.34, issue.2, pp.65-82, 2000.
DOI : 10.1007/s002260000034

J. Boutelje, The Relationship of Structure to Transverse Anisotropy in Wood with Reference to Shrinkage and Elasticity, Holzforschung, vol.3, issue.2, pp.33-46, 1962.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02740298

P. C. Botosso, Une méthode de mesure du retrait microscopique du bois : Application à la prédiction du retrait tangentiel d'éprouvettes de bois massif de Sapin pectiné (Abies alba Mill, 1997.

R. Keylwerth, «Untersuchungen über freie und behinderte Quellung von Holz -Erste Mitteilung: Freie Quellung, Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff, pp.17-252, 1962.
DOI : 10.1007/bf02604681

M. Goulet and Y. Fortin, «Mesures du gonflement de l'érable à sucre au cours d'un cycle de sorption d'humidité à 21°C,» Notes de recherche N°12 -Département d'exploitation et utilisation des bois, pp.1-49, 1975.

R. Hernandez, «Influence of moisture sorption history on the swelling of sugar maple wood and some tropical hardwoods, Science and Technology, vol.27, pp.337-345, 1993.

P. Perré and F. Huber, ), Annals of Forest Science, vol.44, issue.3, pp.255-265, 2007.
DOI : 10.1051/forest:2007003

A. Patera, D. Derome, M. Griffa, and J. Carmeliet, Hysteresis in swelling and in sorption of wood tissue, Journal of Structural Biology, vol.182, issue.3, pp.226-234, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jsb.2013.03.003

A. Taylor, B. Plank, and G. , Standfest et A. Petutschnigg, «Beech wood shrinkage observed at the microscale by a time series of X-ray computed tomographs (µXCT),» Holzforschung, pp.12-201, 2013.

J. Quirk, «Shrinkage and related properties of Douglas-Fir cell walls, Wood and Fiber Science, vol.16, issue.n°11, pp.115-133, 1984.

U. Watanabe, M. Norimoto, M. Fujita, and J. Gril, Transverse shrinkage anisotropy of coniferous wood investigated by the power spectrum analysis, Journal of Wood Science, vol.31, issue.l, pp.9-14, 1998.
DOI : 10.2524/jtappij.41.523

G. Almeida, F. Huber, and P. Perré, «Free shrinkage of wood determined at the cellular level using an environmental Scanning Electron Microscope,» Maderas, Ciencia y tecnologia, vol.16, pp.12-187, 2014.

R. Hann, «Longitudinal shrinkage in seven species of wood, 1969.

A. Koehler and R. Luxford, «The longitudinal shrinkage of redwood, 1951.

N. Barber, A Theoretical Model of Shrinking Wood, Holzforschung, vol.18, issue.4, pp.97-103, 1968.
DOI : 10.1515/hfsg.1965.19.5.144

I. Cave, A theory of the shrinkage of wood, Wood Science and Technology, vol.1, issue.4, pp.284-292, 1972.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00357050

I. Cave, Modelling moisture-related mechanical properties of wood Part I: Properties of the wood constituents, Wood Science and Technology, vol.70, issue.11, pp.75-86, 1978.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00390012

B. Meylan, The influence of microfibril angle on the longitudinal shrinkage-moisture content relationship, Wood Science and Technology, vol.1, issue.1, pp.293-301, 1972.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00357051

M. Welch, «The longitudinal variation of timber during seasoning, Proc. Royal Soc, pp.249-254, 1932.

K. Abe and H. Yamamoto, Behavior of the cellulose microfibril in shrinking woods, Journal of Wood Science, vol.22, issue.1, pp.15-19, 2006.
DOI : 10.1163/22941932-90000273

E. Badel and P. Perré, Using a digital X-ray imaging device to measure the swelling coefficients of a group of wood cells, NDT & E International, vol.34, issue.5, pp.345-353, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0963-8695(00)00072-4

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01609069

A. Patera, 3D experimental investigation of the hygro-mechanical behaviour of wood at cellular and sub-cellular scales, 2014.

W. Barkas, «Wood water relationships, VI. The influence of ray cells on the shrinkage of wood,» Transactions of the Faraday Society, pp.535-547, 1941.

S. Koponen, T. Toratti, and P. Kanerva, Modelling elastic and shrinkage properties of wood based on cell structure, Wood Science and Technology, vol.25, issue.1, pp.25-32, 1991.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00195554

S. Koponen, T. Toratti, and P. Kanerva, Modelling longitudinal elastic an shrinkage properties of wood, Wood Science and Technology, vol.6, issue.1, pp.55-63, 1989.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-87928-9

A. Mariaux, «La section transversale de fibre observée avant et après séchage sur bois massif, pp.65-76, 1989.

A. Rafsanjani, Multiscale poroelastic model: bridging the gap from cellular to macroscopic scale, 2013.

K. Murata and M. Masuda, Observation of the Swelling Behavior of Coniferous Cells Using a Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope and a Digital Image Correlation Method, Journal of the Society of Materials Science, Japan, vol.50, issue.9Appendix, pp.200-205, 2001.
DOI : 10.2472/jsms.50.9Appendix_200

H. Sakagami, J. Matsumura, and K. Oda, «Shrinkage of tracheid cells with desorption vizualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy, IAWA Journal, vol.28, pp.11-29, 2007.

A. Taguchi, K. Murata, and T. Nakano, «Observation of cell shapes in wood cross-sections during water adsorption by confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM),» Holzforschung, pp.627-631, 2010.

K. Murata and M. Masuda, Observation of microscopic swelling behavior of the cell wall, Journal of Wood Science, vol.3, issue.2, pp.507-509, 2001.
DOI : 10.2524/jtappij.52.1616

A. Rafsanjani, D. Derome, and J. Carmeliet, «Micromechanics investigation of hygro-elastic behavior of cellular materials with multi-layered cell walls,» Composite Structures, pp.607-611, 2013.

R. Preston, «The organisation of the cell wall of the conifer tracheid,» Phil, Trans. B, vol.224, p.131, 1934.

H. Gu, A. Zink-sharp, and J. Sell, Hypothesis on the role of cell wall structure in differential transverse shrinkage of wood, Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff, pp.436-442, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/s001070100240

D. Keunecke, K. Novosseletz, C. Lanvermann, D. Mannes, and P. Niemz, Kombination von R??ntgenmessung und digitaler Bildkorrelation zur Dehnungsanalyse an Holz: Potential und Schwierigkeiten, European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, vol.79, issue.9, pp.407-413, 2012.
DOI : 10.1080/01418619908210415

C. Lanvermann, F. K. Wittel, and P. Niemz, Feuchteabh??ngige Verformung von Fichtenholz: Variabilit??t der Quellung quer zur Faser innerhalb von Jahrringen, European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, vol.533, issue.4, pp.43-52, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tca.2012.01.015

S. Care, N. Lenoir, F. Bertrand, and M. Bornert, «Microstructural and multiscale characterization of wood subjected to humidity by X-ray microtomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging, » chez 1st International Conference on Tomography of Materials and Structures, 2013.

A. Rafsanjani, C. Lanvermann, P. Niemz, P. Carmeliet, and D. Derome, Multiscale analysis of free swelling of Norway spruce, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol.54, pp.70-78, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.compositesa.2013.07.005

F. Douglas and D. , un choix naturel pour la construction,» Imp, Rivet Presse Edition

D. Bolmont and M. Fouchard, Le guide du bois et de ses dérivés, 2010.

R. Alcantara, «Etude du comportement du bois sous sollicitations hydriques,» Rapport de stage de master I, Laboratoire Navier, 2016.

K. Meyer and L. Misch, Positions des atomes dans le nouveau mod??le spatial de la cellulose, «Positions des atomes dans le nouveau modèle spatial de la cellulose, pp.232-244, 1937.
DOI : 10.1002/hlca.19350180177

J. Ruelle, Analyse de la diversité du bois de tension de 3 espèces d'angiospermes de forêt tropicale humide de Guyane Française, 2006.

C. Montero, Caractérisation du comportement viscoélastique asymptotique du bois, 2010.

S. Chafe, Collapse, volumetric shrinkage, specific gravity and extractives in Eucalyptus and other species, Wood Science and Technology, vol.17, issue.4, pp.293-307, 1986.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00351583

A. Sharp, M. Riggin, and R. Kaiser, «Determination of moisture content of wood by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance, pp.12-74, 1978.

R. Menon, A. Mackay, J. Hailey, M. Bloom, A. Burgess et al., An NMR determination of the physiological water distribution in wood during drying, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol.33, issue.4, pp.1141-1155, 1987.
DOI : 10.1002/app.1987.070330408

C. D. Araujo, A. L. Mackay, J. R. Hailey, and K. P. , Whittall, «Proton magnetic resonance techniques for characterization of water in wood: application to white spruce, Science and Technology, vol.26, pp.101-113, 1992.

C. D. Araujo, S. Avramidis, and A. L. Mackay, Behaviour of Solid Wood and Bound Water as a Function of Moisture Content. A Proton Magnetic Resonance Study, Holzforschung, vol.5, issue.1, pp.69-74, 1994.
DOI : 10.1002/app.1979.070231101

G. Almeida, S. Gagné, and R. E. Hernandez, A NMR study of water distribution in hardwoods at several equilibrium moisture contents, Wood Science and Technology, vol.14, issue.1, pp.293-307, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/s00226-006-0116-3

J. Cox, P. J. Mcdonald, and B. A. Gardiner, A study of water exchange in wood by means of 2D NMR relaxation correlation and exchange, Holzforschung, vol.40, issue.2, pp.259-266, 2010.
DOI : 10.1021/j150556a015

V. Telkki, M. Yliniemi, and J. Jokisaari, Moisture in softwoods: fiber saturation point, hydroxyl site content, and the amount of micropores as determined from NMR relaxation time distributions, Holzforschung, vol.67, issue.3, pp.291-300, 2013.
DOI : 10.1515/hf-2012-0057

M. Sasaki, T. Kawai, A. Hirai, T. Hashi, and A. Odajima, A Study of Sorbed Water on Cellulose by Pulsed NMR Technique, Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, vol.15, issue.9, pp.19-1652, 1960.
DOI : 10.1143/JPSJ.15.1652

E. Vittadini, L. Dickinson, and P. Chinachoti, 1H and 2H NMR mobility in cellulose, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol.46, issue.1, pp.49-57, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0144-8617(00)00282-4

P. Faure, S. Caré, C. Po, and S. Rodts, An MRI-SPI and NMR relaxation study of drying???hydration coupling effect on microstructure of cement-based materials at early age, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol.23, issue.2, pp.12-311, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.mri.2004.11.034

P. Faure, Proton NMR relaxation as a probe for setting cement pastes, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol.26, issue.8, pp.1183-1196, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.mri.2008.01.026

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00528660

P. Faure, U. Peter, D. Lesueur, and P. Coussot, Water transfers within Hemp Lime Concrete followed by NMR, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.42, issue.11, pp.1468-1474, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2012.07.007

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01157367

E. Hahn, An Accurate Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Method for Measuring Spin-Lattice Relaxation Times, Physical Review, vol.75, issue.1, pp.145-147, 1949.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.76.145

H. Carr and E. Purcell, Effects of Diffusion on Free Precession in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiments, Physical Review, vol.88, issue.3, pp.630-638, 1954.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.88.1070

S. Meiboom and D. Gill, Modified Spin???Echo Method for Measuring Nuclear Relaxation Times, Review of Scientific Instruments, vol.233, issue.8, pp.688-691, 1958.
DOI : 10.1103/RevModPhys.26.167

K. Whittall and A. Mackay, Quantitative interpretation of NMR relaxation data, Journal of Magnetic Resonance (1969), vol.84, issue.1, pp.134-152, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-2364(89)90011-5

R. Brown, Information available and unavailable from multiexponential relaxation data, Journal of Magnetic Resonance (1969), vol.82, issue.3, pp.539-561, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-2364(89)90217-5

A. English, K. Whittall, M. Joy, and R. Henkelman, Quantitative Two-Dimensional time Correlation Relaxometry, Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol.84, issue.2, pp.425-434, 1991.
DOI : 10.1002/mrm.1910220250

Y. Song, L. Venkataramanan, M. Hürlimann, M. Flaum, P. Frulla et al., T1???T2 Correlation Spectra Obtained Using a Fast Two-Dimensional Laplace Inversion, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, vol.154, issue.2, pp.261-268, 2002.
DOI : 10.1006/jmre.2001.2474

A. Abragam, The Principles of Nuclear Magnetism, 1961.

S. Rodts and D. Bytchenkoff, Structural properties of 2D NMR relaxation spectra of diffusive systems, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, vol.205, issue.2, pp.1315-318, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jmr.2010.04.021

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00528325

D. Bytchenkoff and S. Rodts, Structure of the two-dimensional relaxation spectra seen within the eigenmode perturbation theory and the two-site exchange model, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, vol.208, issue.1, pp.4-19, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jmr.2010.09.007

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00673315

J. Butler, J. Reeds, and S. Dawson, Estimating Solutions of First Kind Integral Equations with Nonnegative Constraints and Optimal Smoothing, SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, vol.18, issue.3, pp.13-381, 1981.
DOI : 10.1137/0718025

M. Fourmentin, Impact de la répartition et des transferts d'eau sur les propriétés des matériaux de construction à base de chaux formulées, 2015.

H. Meier and K. C. Wilkie, «The distribution of polysaccharides in the cell-wall of tracheids of Pine (Pinus silvestris L.),» Holzforschung, pp.16-177, 1959.

F. D. Orazio and S. Bhattacharia, Halperin, «Enhanced self-diffusion of water in restricted geometry, Physical Review Letters, vol.63, issue.n°11, pp.43-46, 1989.

F. D. Orazio, S. Bhattacharia, W. Halperin, K. Eguchi, and T. Mizusaki, «Molecular diffusion and nuclear-magnetic-resonance relaxation of water in unsaturated porous silica glass, » Physical Review B, vol.42, pp.116-9810, 1990.

P. Porion, A. Faugère, P. Levitz, H. Vandamme, A. Raoof et al., A NMR investigation of adsorption/desorption hysteresis in porous silica gels, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol.16, issue.5-6, pp.679-682, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0730-725X(98)00024-1

L. Donaldson, Cellulose microfibril aggregates and their size variation with cell wall type, Wood Science and Technology, vol.37, issue.5, pp.443-460, 2007.
DOI : 10.1163/22941932-90000280

L. Salmén and I. Burgert, «Cell wall features with regard to mechanical performance. A review, Holzforschung, vol.63, pp.121-129, 2009.

L. Salmén, Wood morphology and properties from molecular perspectives, Annals of Forest Science, vol.312, issue.6, pp.679-684, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/S0008-6215(98)00236-5

J. Fahlén and L. Salmén, «Cross-sectional structure of the secondary wall of wood fibers as affected by processing, Journal of Materials Science, vol.38, issue.1, pp.119-126, 2003.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1021174118468

I. Cave, Mechanical properties of fibre-reinforced materials. The wood-water system, 1973.

B. Bay, T. Smith, D. Fyhrie, and M. Saad, Digital volume correlation: Three-dimensional strain mapping using X-ray tomography, Experimental Mechanics, vol.27, issue.10???12, pp.13-217, 1999.
DOI : 10.2118/22943-PA

F. Forsberg, X-ray microtomography and digital volume correlation for internal deformation and strain analysis, 2008.

M. Zauner, In-situ synchrotron based tomographic microscopy of uniaxially loaded wood: insitu testing device, procedures and experimental investigations, 2014.

J. Buffière and E. Maire, Imagerie 3D en mécanique des matériaux, Lavoisier éd, p.391

T. T. Nguyen, Modeling of complex microcracking in cement based materials by combining numerical simulations based on a phase-field method and experimental 3D imaging, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01298779

M. Sutton, J. Orteu, and H. Schreier, Image Correlation for Shape, Motion and Deformation Measurements, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01729219

A. Zink, R. Davidson, and R. Hanna, «Strain measurement in wood using a digital image correlation technique, Wood and Fiber Science, vol.27, issue.14, pp.346-359, 1995.

M. Bornert, F. Brémand, P. Doumalin, D. J. , M. Fazzini et al., Assessment of Digital Image Correlation Measurement Errors: Methodology and Results, Experimental Mechanics, vol.43, issue.4, pp.353-370, 2009.
DOI : 10.1117/12.7972925

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00881043

F. Forsberg, R. Mooser, M. Arnold, E. Hack, and P. Wyss, 3D micro-scale deformations of wood in bending: Synchrotron radiation ??CT data analyzed with digital volume correlation, Journal of Structural Biology, vol.164, issue.3, pp.255-262, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jsb.2008.08.004

H. Tran, P. Doumalin, C. Delisee, J. Dupre, J. Malvestio et al., 3D mechanical analysis of low-density wood-based fiberboards by X-ray microcomputed tomography and Digital Volume Correlation, Journal of Materials Science, vol.43, issue.3, pp.18-3198, 2013.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1475-1305.2007.00340.x

P. Doumalin, «Microextensométrie Locale par Corrélation d'Images Numériques, 2000.

A. Gaye, «Analyse multi-échelle des mécanismes de déformation du sel gemme par mesures de champs surfaciques et volumiques, 2015.

N. Lenoir, M. Bornert, J. Desrues, P. Bésuelle, and G. Viggiani, Volumetric Digital Image Correlation Applied to X-ray Microtomography Images from Triaxial Compression Tests on Argillaceous Rock, Strain, vol.23, issue.3, pp.193-205, 2007.
DOI : 10.1520/GTJ11051J

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00541503