Energy Supply and Demand Side Management in Industrial Microgrid Context

Abstract : Due to increased energy costs and environmental concerns such as elevated carbon footprints, centralized power generation systems are restructuring themselves to reap benefits of distributed generation in order to meet the ever growing energy demands. Microgrids are considered as a possible solution to deploy distributed generation which includes Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) (e.g., solar, wind, battery, etc). In this thesis, we are interested in addressing energy management challenges in an industrial microgrid where energy loads consist of industrial processes. Our plan of attack is to divide the microgrid energy management into supply and demand sides.In supply side, the challenges include modeling of power generations and smoothing out fluctuations of the DERs. To model power generations, we propose amodel based on service curve concepts of Network Calculus (NC). Using this mathematical tool, we determine a minimum amount of power the DERs can generate and aggregating them will give us total power production in the microgrid. After that, if there is an imbalance between energy supply and demand, we put forward different strategies to minimize energy procurement costs. Based on real power consumption data of an industrial site located in France, significant cost savings can be made by adopting the strategies. In this thesis, we also study how to mitigate the effects of power fluctuations of DERs in conjunction with Energy Storage Systems (ESSs). For this purpose, we propose a Gaussian-based smoothing algorithm and compare it with state-of-the-art smoothing algorithms. We found out that the proposed algorithm uses less battery size for smoothing purposes when compared to other algorithms. To this end, we are also interested in investigating effects of allowable range of fluctuations on battery sizes.In demand side, the aim is to reduce energy costs through Demand Side Management (DSM) approaches such as Demand Response (DR) and Energy Efficiency (EE). As industrial processes are power-hungry consumers, a small power consumption reduction using the DSM approaches could translate into crucial savings. This thesis focuses on DR approach that can leverage time varying electricity prices to move energy demands from peak to off-peak hours. To attain this goal, we rely on a queuing theory-based model to characterize temporal behaviors (arrival and departure of jobs) of a manufacturing system. After defining job arrival and departure processes, an effective utilization function is used to predict workstation’s (or machine’s) behavior in temporal domain that can show its status (working or idle) at any time. Taking the status of every machine in a production line as an input, we also propose a DR scheduling algorithm that adapts power consumption of a production line to available power and production rate constraints. The algorithm is coded using Deterministic Finite State Machine (DFSM) in which state transitions happen by inserting a job (or not inserting) at conveyor input. We provide conditions for existence of feasible schedules and conditions to accept DR requests positively.To verify analytical computations on the queuing part, we have enhanced Objective Modular Network Testbed in C++ (OMNET++) discrete event simulator for fitting it to our needs. We modified various libraries in OMNET++ to add machine and conveyor modules. In this thesis, we also setup a testbed to experiment with a smart DR protocol called Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) that enables energy providers (e.g., utility grid) to ask consumers to reduce their power consumption for a given time. The objective is to explore how to implement our DR scheduling algorithm on top of OpenADR
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Alemayehu Desta. Energy Supply and Demand Side Management in Industrial Microgrid Context. Modeling and Simulation. Université Paris-Est, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC1234⟩. ⟨tel-01760424⟩

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