Evolutions de microstructure au cours du forgeage de l'alliage René 65

Abstract : Polycrystalline Nickel-based alloys are widely used as components for rotative parts of jet engines submitted to extreme conditions. Endlessly increasing objectives in terms of energy efficiency have led the engine manufacturers to increase their service temperature. As a consequence, Inconel 718 and similar alloys -that were used until now- cannot withstand such severe conditions anymore, and lack mechanical resistance at the increased temperature. René 65 is a new γ-γ’ superalloy which has been designed specifically for that purpose by General Electric. It has been selected by Safran Aircraft Engines as the material for low-pressure turbine disks in the new LEAP engine. To reach the desired mechanical properties, a fine and homogeneous microstructure is required. The forging process is a complex sequence which involves various hot deformation stages and thermal treatments, during which the microstructure evolves. Although the underlying mechanisms governing the microstructure evolutions are quite known, their specific mechanism and kinetics may vary depending on the alloy.Interrupted compression tests were conducted at laboratory scale under thermomechanical conditions (temperature, strain and strain rate) in accordance with the industrial process. In the first part, the focus is placed on the dynamic recrystallization mechanisms. Accurate characterization of the deformed microstructures has enabled to highlight a new recrystallization mechanism which superimposes with more conventional ones. It was named heteroepitaxial recrystallization. The interactions between those mechanisms as well as their relative kinetics have been established in a wide range of deformation conditions. . It is demonstrated that this mechanism occurs in other γ-γ’ Nickel-based alloys. The second part of the study is dedicated to the stability of deformed microstructures when exposed to high temperature thermal treatments. René 65, as many other Nickel-based alloys, is subjected to the undesirable phenomenon of selective grain growth, which leads to very heterogeneous microstructures containing abnormally large grains in a fine matrix. Critical deformation conditions leading to heterogeneous microstructures during subsequent annealing have been determined in an aim to identify the critical forging window which should be avoided. The microstructural mechanisms responsible of this phenomenon have been investigated, and the possibility of a preventive solution is discussed.
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Marie-Agathe Charpagne. Evolutions de microstructure au cours du forgeage de l'alliage René 65. Matériaux. PSL Research University, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PSLEM041⟩. ⟨tel-01764932⟩

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