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Modèles paramétriques pour la tomographie sismique bayésienne

Abstract : First arrival time tomography aims at inferring the seismic wave propagation velocity using experimental first arrival times. In our study, we rely on a Bayesian approach to estimate the wave velocity and the associated uncertainties. This approach incorporates the information provided by the data and the prior knowledge of the velocity model. Bayesian tomography allows for a better estimation of wave velocity as well asassociated uncertainties. However, this approach remains fairly expensive, and MCMC algorithms that are used to sample the posterior distribution are efficient only as long as the number of parameters remains within reason. Hence, their use requires a careful reflection both on the parameterization of the velocity model, in order to reduce the problem's dimension, and on the definition of the prior distribution of the parameters. In this thesis, we introduce new parsimonious parameterizations enabling to accurately reproduce the wave velocity field with the associated uncertainties.The first parametric model that we propose uses a random Johnson-Mehl tessellation, a variation of the Voronoï tessellation. The second one uses Gaussian kernels as basis functions. It is especially adapted to the detection of seismic wave velocity anomalies. Each anomaly isconsidered to be a linear combination of these basis functions localized at the realization of a Poisson point process. We first illustrate the tomography results with a synthetic velocity model, which contains two small anomalies. We then apply our methodology to a more advanced and more realistic synthetic model that serves as a benchmark in the oil industry. The tomography results reveal the ability of our algorithm to map the velocity heterogeneitieswith precision using few parameters. Finally, we propose a new parametric model based on the compressed sensing techniques. The first results are encouraging. However, the model still has some weakness related to the uncertainties estimation.In addition, we analyse real data in the context of induced microseismicity. In this context, we develop a trans-dimensional and hierarchical approach in order to deal with the full complexity of the layered model.
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Submitted on : Thursday, April 12, 2018 - 2:39:28 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, November 17, 2021 - 12:31:14 PM


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  • HAL Id : tel-01764943, version 1


Jihane Belhadj. Modèles paramétriques pour la tomographie sismique bayésienne. Géophysique [physics.geo-ph]. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PSLEM073⟩. ⟨tel-01764943⟩



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