Hiérarchisation des déterminants de la composition atmosphérique future en Europe

Abstract : The atmospheric composition is mainly driven by the emission of primary pollutants and precursors and meteorology. Because of its sensitivity to unfavorable weather patterns, air pollution is expected to be sensitive to climate change. That is why the aim of this work is to estimate the effect of climate change over air pollution in Europe at the end of the century. To achieve this we rely on modeling which allow to cover such timescales. To reduce uncertainties and quantify the effect of climate change on air quality, ensemble approaches should be applied. However, the computing cost of such methods is substantial. To overcome this issue we developed a statistical method which does not require forcing a chemistry and transport model with a large ensemble of climate projections. The results obtained with this statistical method are in good agreement with full chemistry-transport models when considering long time periods. But we point out the limits of the method when focusing on extreme pollution events. The statistical model can be used to assess the uncertainty of using a comprehensive ensemble of climate forcing in terms of air quality impacts. The statistical approach can also help identifying a subset of climate forcing that should be explored in priority to drive chemistry-transport models.Such a subset of climate models is however only available at a degraded vertical resolution on existing databases such as EuroCordex. To quantify the error induced when using a meteorological variables only saved for a few vertical levels, a sensitivity study focused on the impact of the vertical resolution of the meteorological data has been perfomed. We emphasized that a minimum of 10 vertical levels and some specific variables were required to study the impact of climate change on air quality to keep the error lower than the climate change signal.Finally, we use the statistical method to compare the climate change effect and the future emissions reduction impact estimated also with a surrogate model. We exhibit that the magnitude of climate benefit for PM2.5 will be comparable to the emissions reductions of the dominant sector in each country studied. These emissions decreases will therefore be reinforced the climate change. On the opposite, for SOMO35, the climate penalty will jeopardize the emission reductions between 2010 and 2050. We also evaluate that climate change will become more important than the expected reduction emissions signal.
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Vincent Lemaire. Hiérarchisation des déterminants de la composition atmosphérique future en Europe. Océan, Atmosphère. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLX091⟩. ⟨tel-01775191⟩

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