Mod?lisation multi?chelle du comportement et de l'endommagement de composites tiss?s 3D. D?veloppement d'outils num?riques d'aide ? la conception des structures tiss?es.

Abstract : With their large flexibility of design , 3D woven composites can provide mechanical properties tailored specificially to structural needs. However, the architectural complexity of woven reinforcements presents serious challenges when predicting properties, behaviours and damage processes. The present work deals with these challenges and seeks to develop numerical tools which are able to foresee the mechanical characteristics of this kind of materials. For this purpose, a multiscale approach, which combines experimental tests and numerical simulations, has been adopted. This approach allows, simultaneously, to take into account the loads and composite behavior, at the macroscopic scale, also the reinforcement geometry and the material heterogeneities which are only visible at the mesoscopic scale. The experimental investigation has been carried out to characterize the behaviour of an 2.5D interlock composite and its constituents. Examinations of the damage mechanisms have also been performed, using tomography and the interzone concept, for this woven composite under loadings in tension and combined tension and bending. With regards to the numerical modeling part, the ultimate degradation of the composite was simulated by cutting the reinforcement yarns with a failure criterion, previously reported, on a 3D representative cell of the experimental composite. For the two kinds of macroscopic loadings, the locations, orientations and kinetics of the damage were found to be fully in agreement with the experimental results. The influence of the architectural parameters on the failure criterion was then evaluated by finite element calculation. Consequently, it has been possible to proposed optimized architectures and make a camparison, for the two macroscopic loadings, with the 2.5D interlock woven composite. Still motivated to improve the prediction of the behaviour of woven composites, this work has also been on developing a finer modeling approach to the understanding of damage mechanisms. A stochastic approach was therefore introduced to the failure criterion using a Weibull statistical distribution. In addition, matrix cavitation has also been taken into account in the modelling. This damage mechanism was simulated using the GTN (Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman) model. Finally, model reduction techniques have been applied to lower the cost of computing multiscale modeling in order to identify, for example, material properties by an inverse method or to simulate fatigue tests.
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Quentin Roirand. Mod?lisation multi?chelle du comportement et de l'endommagement de composites tiss?s 3D. D?veloppement d'outils num?riques d'aide ? la conception des structures tiss?es.. Matériaux. PSL Research University, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PSLEM036⟩. ⟨tel-01777979⟩

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