Birational invariants : cohomology, algebraic cycles and Hodge theory cohomologie

Abstract : In this thesis, we study some birational invariants of smooth projective varieties, in view of rationality questions for these varieties. It consists of three parts, that can be read independently.In the first chapter, we study, for some families of varieties, some stable birational invariants, that vanish for projective space and that appear naturally with Manin formulas. On one hand, we show for complex cubic 5-folds that the birational invariant given by the group of torsion codimension 3 cycles annihilated by the Deligne cycle map is controlled by the group of torsion 1-cycles of its variety of lines annihilated by the Deligne cycle map. We also prove that the Griffiths group of 1-cycles for the variety of lines of a hypersurface of the projective space over an algebraically closed field of characteristic 0, is trivial when the variety is smooth and Fano of index at least 3.The two last chapters focus on different aspects of the Chow-theoretic decomposition of the diagonal, a property which is invariant under stable birational equivalence, recently introduced by Voisin. In the second chapter, we adapt in characteristic greater than 2, part of the results, obtained by Voisin over the complex numbers, on the decomposition of the diagonal of cubic threefolds.In the last chapter, we study the concept of essential CH_0-dimension introduced by Voisin and related to the decomposition of the diagonal in that having essential CH_0-dimension 0 is equivalent to admitting a Chow-theoretic decomposition of the diagonal. We give sufficient (and necessary) conditions, for a complex variety with trivial group of 0-cycles, having essential CH_0-dimension non greater than 2 to admit a Chow-theoretic decomposition of the diagonal.
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René Mboro. Birational invariants : cohomology, algebraic cycles and Hodge theory cohomologie. Algebraic Geometry [math.AG]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLX049⟩. ⟨tel-01784064⟩

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