Homogenization of Hamilton-Jacobi equations and applications to traffic flow modelling

Abstract : This thesis report deals with the homogenization in space and time of some first order Hamilton-Jacobi equations. It contains two contributions. The corresponding equations are derived from traffic flow modelling. We finally present some results of almost periodic homogenization. In the first chapter, we consider a one dimensional pursuit law with delay which is derived from traffic flow modelling. It takes the form of an infinite system of first order coupled delayed equations. Each equation describes the motion of a driver who interacts with the preceding one: such a model is referred to as a ``follow-the-leader" model. We take into account the reaction time of drivers. We derive a macroscopic model, namely a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, by a homogenization process for reaction times that are below an explicit threshold. The key idea is to show, that below this threshold, a strict comparison principle holds for the infinite system. Above this threshold, we show that collisions can occur. In a second time, for well-chosen dynamics and higher reaction times, we show that there exist some microscopic pursuit laws that do not lead to the previous macroscopic model. Such a law is here derived as a perturbation of the stationnary solution, for which all the vehicles are equally spaced at initial times. The second chapter is dedicated to the homogenization of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for traffic lights. We consider an infinite road where lights are equally spaced and with a constant phase shift between two lights. This model takes the form of a first order Hamilton-Jacobi equation with an Hamiltonian that is discontinuous in the space variable and the notion of viscosity solution is the one introduced by C. Imbert and R. Monneau (2017). Each light is modelled as a time-periodic flux limiter and the traffic flow between two lights corresponds to the classical LWR model. The global Hamiltonian will be time-periodic but not periodic in space for a general phase shift. We first show that the rescaled solution converges toward the solution of the expected macroscopic model where the effective Hamiltonian depends on the phase shift. In a second time, numerical simulations are used to analyse the effect of the phase shift on the effective Hamiltonian and to reveal some properties of the effective Hamiltonian from the numerical observations. In the third chapter, we are interested in some homogenization problems of Hamilton-Jacobi equations within the almost periodic setting which generalizes the usual periodic one. The first problem is the evolutionary version of the work cite {ishii2000almost}, with the same stationary Hamiltonian. The second problem has already been solved in the second chapter but we use here almost periodic arguments for the time periodic and space almost periodic Hamiltonian. We only study the ergodicity of the associated cell problems. We finally discuss open problems, the first one concerning a space and time almost periodic Hamiltonian and the second one being a microscopic model for traffic flow modelling where the Hamiltonian is almost periodic in space
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Jérémy Firozaly. Homogenization of Hamilton-Jacobi equations and applications to traffic flow modelling. Information Theory [math.IT]. Université Paris-Est, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC1064⟩. ⟨tel-01789659⟩



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