Conversion du cholestérol en coprostanol par les bactéries du microbiote intestinal humain et impact sur la cholestérolémie

Abstract : Cholesterol (CH) level management is a keystone to limit cardiovascular diseases. The contrasted efficiency of the drugs currently available as well as the interest around the intestinal microbiota in regulating the host physiology lead us to consider this pathway as a therapeutic alternative. The production of coprostanol (CO), a very poorly absorbed CH derivative, by bacteria of this microbiota has been positively correlated with low CH plasma level. The aims of this thesis are (i) isolate and identify new bacterial strains possessing this activity, (ii) identify the bacterial genes responsible for this transformation and (iii) determine the impact of this metabolism on host physiology. We isolated 22 new strains producing CO from the stools of a high-coprostanol producing individual. We chose Bacteroides sp. D8 and Bacteroides sp. BV for the construction of two genomic libraries and eight others for in vivo implantation tests in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of germ-free mice. We identified 55 potentially positive clones by functional screening of these genomic libraries. Their additional analyzes should provide us with information about the genes involved in this activity. All selected bacteria are capable of colonizing the GIT of germ-free mice. Parabacteroides distasonis is the best strain producing CO in vivo. We tested its effect on blood cholesterol level in germ-free mice subjected to an 11-week CH-rich diet compared to an in vitro non-producing strain, B. dorei, and with conventionalized mice as control. The B. dorei strain produces CO in vivo, emphasizing the importance of the environment in the CO production activity already assumed from the literature and our results in vitro. Genes involved in the excretion of CH from body to feces are overexpressed in these mice and those colonized with P. distasonis. However, only the latter have lower cholesterolemia than conventional mice. The mechanism involved appears to be independent of CO production and CH excretion because the same amounts of these compounds are found in feces independently of bacterial status. Total biliary acids concentrations in bile and feces are higher for monocolonized mice compared to conventionalized mice. The feces of mice colonized with P. distasonis exhibited more urso- and chenodeoxycholic acids than conventionalized mice and more cholic acid than mice colonized with B. dorei. In conclusion, we have isolated new strains and identified potentially positive clones. In vivo studies tend to show that coprostanol production activity has no effect on plasma cholesterol. In contrast, P. distasonis seems to decrease plasma cholesterol by a still unknown mechanism.
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Aline Potiron. Conversion du cholestérol en coprostanol par les bactéries du microbiote intestinal humain et impact sur la cholestérolémie. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLA036⟩. ⟨tel-01812929⟩

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