Thermomechanical numerical modelling of additive manufacturing by selective laser melting of powder bed : Application to ceramic materials

Abstract : The application of SLM process is limited by the difficulty of process control. Its application to ceramics is especially challengeable due to their weak absorption to laser and weak resistance to thermal shock. The mastery of this process requires a full understanding of heat transfer, fluid dynamics in melt pool and solid mechanics. In this work, we propose a numerical model for the simulation of SLM process applied to ceramics. The model is developed at the track scale and with the assumption of continuous powder bed. It is based on level set method and multiphase homogenization, with which we are able to follow the evolution of gas/material interface and phase transformation. Simulations are performed to study the influence of material properties and process parameters on temperature, melt pool shape, fluid dynamics and solid mechanics. Apart from the laser power and scanning speed, material absorption is also found to be important to the thermal behavior and the melt pool shape. With the fluid dynamics, convex shape of track cross section is achieved under surface tension. Besides that, liquid droplets collapsing formed by the melting of powder create melt pool instability when falling, thus leading to track irregularity after solidification. The Marangoni effect, caused by surface tension gradient at gas/material interface, is investigated. Its influence on temperature distribution, melt pool shape and track regularity is recognized. One interesting finding is the smoothing effect of track surface with negative ∂γ/∂T. When combine surface tension with scanning speed, track surface becomes more irregular with the increase of scanning speed. The well-known balling effect is reproduced with high scanning speed. This can be helpful to find the regime for regular track shape with given laser power and scanning speed. Cracking defect is deleterious in additive manufacturing. The use of an auxiliary laser can help to avoid this defect by decreasing the maximum tensile stress. The process mode of this auxiliary laser remains an interesting subject to be studied and some guidelines have been given by the presented simulations. The model is validated by the comparison of melt pool shape with experiments under different process conditions. Simulations can also reveal the tendency of track surface variation for certain cases. By the application to multi-track deposition, the influence of hatch distance on layer surface, temperature and stress evolution is emphasized.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, June 13, 2018 - 8:50:08 AM
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Qiang Chen. Thermomechanical numerical modelling of additive manufacturing by selective laser melting of powder bed : Application to ceramic materials. Materials. PSL Research University, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018PSLEM004⟩. ⟨tel-01814209⟩

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