Analyse de vitesse par migration quantitative dans les domaines images et données pour l’imagerie sismique

Abstract : Active seismic experiments are widely used to characterize the structure of the subsurface. Migration Velocity Analysis techniques aim at recovering the background velocity model controlling the kinematics of wave propagation. The first step consists of obtaining the reflectivity images by migrating observed data in a given macro velocity model. The estimated model is then updated, assessing the quality of the background velocity model through the image coherency or focusing criteria. Classical migration techniques, however, do not provide a sufficiently accurate reflectivity image, leading to incorrect velocity updates. Recent investigations propose to couple the asymptotic inversion, which can remove migration artifacts in practice, to velocity analysis in the subsurface-offset domain for better robustness. This approach requires large memory and cannot be currently extended to 3D. In this thesis, I propose to transpose the strategy to the more conventional common-shot migration based velocity analysis. I analyze how the approach can deal with complex models, in particular with the presence of low velocity anomaly zones or discontinuous reflectivities. Additionally, it requires less memory than its counterpart in the subsurface-offset domain. I also propose to extend Inversion Velocity Analysis to the data-domain, leading to a more linearized inverse problem than classic waveform inversion. I establish formal links between data-fitting principle and image coherency criteria by comparing the new approach to other reflection-based waveform inversion techniques. The methodologies are developed and analyzed on 2D synthetic data sets.
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Yubing Li. Analyse de vitesse par migration quantitative dans les domaines images et données pour l’imagerie sismique. Géophysique [physics.geo-ph]. PSL Research University, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PSLEM002⟩. ⟨tel-01814262⟩

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