Effet des défauts d’usinage sur la tenue en fatigue de pièces aéronautiques.

Abstract : The size of a component has been proved in several studies of the literature to affect the fatigue strength and this trend is known to be more pronounced in the High Cycle Fatigue regime. More exactly a drop of the fatigue limit is observed and this evolution is very often explained by the probability to find a critical defect or a weakest zone in the material as the stressed volume rises. The present manuscript is part of a French research project gathering several industrial and academic partners that aims to control the machining quality of aircraft structural components. For one part of the project the challenge is to define a proper defect acceptability criterion for HCF design purpose. It must be able to account for a large range of surface defects and of component sizes and geometries. Even though the primary objective was to better understand the impact of periodic surface micro-geometry patterns (characteristic of the type of machining used) on the fatigue limit, we thought that it was first necessary to check if a size effect can be observed when an increasing number of artificial simplified surface defects are introduced at the surface of smooth specimens. The aeronautical material under investigation is a 7050 Aluminum alloy (Al Zn6CuMgZr). A large fatigue testing campaign under fully reversed plane bending loading is undertaken on specimens with artificial surface hemispherical defects. Defect number varies from 1 to 44 per specimen whereas their size ranges from 60 µm to 800 µm. Testing results allow the characterization of both Kitagawa effect and scale effect on the fatigue response. A probabilistic approach based on the weakest link concept together with a proper fatigue crack initiation criterion is used to account for the stress distribution and the size of the highly stressed volume. Predictions using FE simulations show a good agreement with experimental results and illustrate the importance of taking the scale effect into account while designing components containing different types of surface defects or roughness patterns.Keywords : Surface defect, HCF, Kitagawa-Takahashi diagram, Weakest link concept, AA7050 alloy.
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Foued Abroug. Effet des défauts d’usinage sur la tenue en fatigue de pièces aéronautiques.. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018ENAM0016⟩. ⟨tel-01816027⟩

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