Stabilité de l'intéraction onde de choc/ couche limite laminaire

Abstract : The shock wave boundary layer (BL) interaction phenomenon is ubiquitous in aerodynamic. In general this interaction generates some low frequency oscillations which can be disastrous for the machines. The typical example is the buffet phenomenon on an airfoil in transonic conditions. Buffet is dangerous since its low frequency can excite the structural modes of the airfoil and break it. The phenomenology has been wildly studied when the incoming BL is turbulent. These studies have derived several credible scenarii and efficient methodologies to capture its dynamic, especially the stability analysis tools on an averaged turbulent flow (RANS). However laminar technologies, the use of laminar BL to reduce the fuel consumption of planes, represent a new scientific challenge on this problematic. In fact, the physic of the interaction is importantly impacted by the laminar nature of the BL especially because of its weak resilience to an adversed pressure gradient and of the transition to turbulence.The thesis deals with the methodologies for the stability analysis on a RANS base flow in the case of a laminar BL. The originality and the contribution of this work have been to take into account a transition criteria in the linearised dynamic on a RANS base flow. The model used (RANS and transition) have then been linearized in order to make a stability analysis which take into account all the aerodynamic varaibles. The validation of this methodology has been made by comparison to expermient and simulation (LES) on two configurations of application. The first one is a weak reflected shock wave on a flat plate. The second one is the strong shock around an airfoil in a transonic regime. In both cases the incoming BL is laminar.Stability and resolvent analysis have been made. These approches have been able to caratirized the ocillator/noise amplifier behavior of the flow and to enabled a physical analysis of the unsteadinesses observed in the experiments.The case of the reflected shock wave is caracterized by three frequencies. The stability analysis shows that they don't correspond to globally unstable modes but to a noise amplifier behavior of the flow. The resolvent analysis identifies the three frequencies. The analysis of the optimal response, coupled with a local stability analysis, enables to proposed physical scenarii of these dynamics.In the case of the strong shock on an airfoil in transonic regime, the flow is globally unstable. Two unstable modes have been identified. The first one, at low frequency, correspond to the buffet phenomenon also observed in the turbulent case. The second one appears at higher frequency and correspond to the oscillation of the separation bubble formed at the feet of the shock.More generally, this thesis suggests that some dynamics of these two interactions result from the same mecanism linked to the breathing motion of the laminar separation bubble.
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Nicolas Bonne. Stabilité de l'intéraction onde de choc/ couche limite laminaire. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLX025⟩. ⟨tel-01817018⟩

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