Conception, modélisation et contrôle d'un tube anti-roulis multidirectionnel pour une barge offshore portant une éolienne

Abstract : Thanks to the recent policies of subsidizing renewables energies, constructions of offshore wind farms are booming all over the world. Yet, fixed-bottom wind turbine technology, the only one currently deployed, are too costly for deep waters. This hinders the development of wind power. This is why the scientific community has an interest in floating wind turbines (FWT). The cost of these wind turbines does not depend much on water depth. But since the wind turbine is not fixed into the seabed, the mechanical stress caused by the waves significatively raises.To reduce these detrimental loads, different approaches can be used. The litterature already discarded the control of the wind thrust applied on the rotor to compensate the "fore-aft" oscillations of the tower. We focused on stabilizing floating wind turbine by means of an attached damping system placed inside the float, it is a Tuned Liquid Column Damper (a U-tube containing a liquid, TLCD, also known as anti-roll tank), used in other areas. The damper we propose is an active system where TLCD parameters are continuously modified. Parameters are updated according to a strategy defined thanks to an analysis of the interactions between TLCD and the float (referred to as barge) supporting the wind turbine. We modelled the coupled dynamics of the barge and the TLCD in the vertical plan using a Lagrangian approach. We studied the motions of the damped system for a constant head-loss coefficient in the TLCD. The limits of this approach were detailed thanks to the classic results in double oscillators literature. Then, we focused on an active approach involving a time varying of the head-loss coefficient. We proposed Linear Quadratic Regulator and Model Predictive Control strategies to determine the head-loss coefficient. At a later stage, simulations enabled us to discard the MPC strategy as its complexity/performance ratio is rather bad compared to the LQR strategy in this particular case.A more general study of the system, in three dimensions, showed us that the TLCD is not robust against wave incidence. Therefore, we imagined and modeled new dampers inspired by the TLCD, which can damp the float effectively, regardless of the wave incidence. We named those dampers Tuned Liquid Multiple Column Damper (TLMCD).The dampers we propose are active TLMCD. Their designs are based on their dynamic properties and a cost study. We also detailed the specificities of LQR design to ensure the best possible robustness against wave incidence.The performance of the proposed TLMCD dampers was assessed through numerical simulations for a wide range of sea conditions. We observe that barge roll can be reduced by a factor of four compared to the undamped FWT. These results show us that the TLMCD we propose is interesting to damp significantly, robustly and economically our FWT.
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Christophe Coudurier. Conception, modélisation et contrôle d'un tube anti-roulis multidirectionnel pour une barge offshore portant une éolienne. Automatique / Robotique. PSL Research University, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PSLEM054⟩. ⟨tel-01822625⟩

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