E. Abrahamson, Managerial fads and fashions: The diffusion and rejection of innovations, pp.586-612, 1991.

E. Abrahamson, Management fashion Academy of management review, pp.254-285, 1996.

E. Abrahamson and G. Fairchild, Management fashion: Lifecycles, triggers, and collective learning processes. Administrative science quarterly, pp.708-740, 1999.
DOI : 10.2307/2667053

E. Abrahamson, Management fashion Academy of management review 21, pp.254-285, 1996.

F. Aggeri, Qu'est-ce qu'un dispositif stratégique. Le libellio d'Aegis, pp.47-64, 2014.

H. Aguinis, Performance management, 2009.

H. Aguinis, H. Joo, and R. K. Gottfredson, Performance management universals: Think globally and act locally, Business Horizons, vol.55, issue.4, pp.385-392, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bushor.2012.03.004

C. Ahlvik and I. Björkman, Towards explaining subsidiary implementation, integration, and internalization of MNC headquarters HRM practices, International Business Review, vol.24, issue.3, pp.497-505, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2014.10.007

G. Ailon, Mirror, Mirror on the Wall: Culture's Consequences in A Value Test of its Own Design, Academy of Management Review, vol.33, issue.4, pp.885-904, 2008.
DOI : 10.5465/amr.2008.34421995

C. Argyris and D. Schön, Theory in Practice: Increasing Professional Effectiveness, 1974.

M. Aristotle and W. D. , The Complete Works of Aristotle, 1984.

M. Armstrong and S. Taylor, Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice, 2014.

J. Bae and J. J. Lawler, Organizational and HRM strategies in Korea: Impact on firm performance in an emerging economy, Academy of management journal, vol.43, issue.3, pp.502-517, 2000.

L. Baldassarre and B. Finken, GE's Real-Time Performance Development, 2015.

, Business Review

K. Barad, Getting Real, pp.87-91, 1998.
DOI : 10.1215/9780822388128-006

K. Barad, Posthumanist Performativity: Toward an Understanding of How Matter Comes to Matter, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, vol.28, issue.3, pp.801-831, 2003.
DOI : 10.1086/345321

K. Barad, Meeting the universe halfway: Quantumphysics and the entanglement ofmatter and meaning, 2007.

D. Barry and C. Rerup, Going Mobile: Aesthetic Design Considerations from Calder and the Constructivists, Organization Science, vol.17, issue.2, pp.262-276, 2006.
DOI : 10.1287/orsc.1050.0165

C. A. Bartlett and S. Ghoshal, Managing across borders: The transnational corporation, 1989.

A. Björkman and R. Piekkari, Language and foreign subsidiary control: An empirical test, Journal of International Management, vol.15, issue.1, pp.105-117, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.intman.2008.12.001

I. Björkman and J. E. Lervik, Transferring HR practices within multinational corporations, Human Resource Management Journal, vol.17, issue.3, pp.320-335, 2007.
DOI : 10.2307/256683

I. Björkman and Y. Lu, The management of human resources in Chinese-Western joint ventures, Journal of World Business, vol.34, issue.3, pp.306-324, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S1090-9516(99)00021-8

I. Björkman, M. Ehrnrooth, A. Smale, and S. John, The determinants of line management internalisation of HRM practices in MNC subsidiaries, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.29, issue.8, pp.22-1654, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/S0148-2963(96)00028-8

I. Björkman, A. Smale, J. Sumelius, V. Suutari, and Y. Lu, Changes in institutional context and MNC operations in China: Subsidiary HRM practices in 1996 versus 2006, International Business Review, vol.17, issue.2, pp.146-158, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2008.02.001

R. J. Boland and F. Collopy, Design Matters for Management, pp.3-18, 2004.
DOI : 10.1515/9783034611398.37

M. H. Bond, The Oxford handbook of Chinese psychology, 2010.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199541850.001.0001

P. Boxall, The Strategic Hrm Debate and the Resource-Based View of the Firm, Human Resource Management Journal, vol.5, issue.2, pp.59-75, 1996.
DOI : 10.1080/09585199400000020

R. Boyer, E. Charron, U. Jurgens, and S. Tolliday, Between imitation and innovation: The transfer and hybridization of productive models in the international automobile industry, 1998.

N. Bozionelos and L. Wang, An investigation on the attitudes of Chinese workers towards individually based performance-related reward systems, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.27, issue.2, pp.284-302, 2007.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2001.tb00088.x

B. Jr, R. D. Milkovich, G. T. Read, and W. , The current state of performance appraisal research and practice: Concerns, directions, and implications, Journal of management, vol.18, issue.2, pp.321-352, 1992.

C. Brewster, Towards a'European'model of human resource management, Journal of international business studies, pp.1-21, 1995.

M. Brivot and Y. Gendron, Beyond panopticism: On the ramifications of surveillance in a contemporary professional setting, Accounting, Organizations and Society, vol.36, issue.3, pp.135-155, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.aos.2011.03.003

M. Buckingham and A. Goodall, Reinventing performance management, Harvard Business Review, vol.93, issue.4, pp.40-50, 2015.

R. A. Burgelman, Bridging history and reductionism: A key role for longitudinal qualitative research, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.13, issue.Summer Special, pp.591-601, 2011.
DOI : 10.1002/smj.4250131013

M. Callon, Some Elements of a Sociology of Translation: Domestication of the Scallops and the Fishermen of St Brieuc Bay, The Sociological Review, vol.23, issue.1_suppl, pp.196-233, 1986.
DOI : 10.1177/053901884023001001

P. Cappelli and A. Tavis, The performance management revolution, Harvard business review, vol.94, issue.10, pp.58-67, 2016.

R. L. Cardy, G. H. Dobbins, and G. R. Ferris, Performance appraisal: Alternative perspectives, 1994.

D. Cederblom, The Performance Appraisal Interview, Journal of Library Administration, vol.4, issue.2, pp.219-227, 1982.
DOI : 10.1300/J111V04N02_09

G. Chen and D. Tjosvold, Conflict management and team effectiveness in China: The mediating role of justice, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, vol.19, issue.4, pp.557-572, 2002.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1020573710461

T. Chen, K. Leung, F. Li, and Z. Ou, Interpersonal harmony and creativity in China, Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol.6, issue.5, pp.648-672, 2015.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1740-8784.2010.00192.x

A. Cheng, Histoire de la pensée chinoise, Ed. du Seuil, 1997.

V. Cheng, J. Rhodes, and P. Lok, A framework for strategic decision making and performance among Chinese managers, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.29, issue.9, pp.1373-1395, 2010.
DOI : 10.1177/1470595804041521

F. Chevalier, Cercles de qualité et changement organisationnel, 1991.

I. K. Chew and C. Lim, A Confucian perspective on conflict resolution, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.36, issue.1, pp.143-157, 1995.
DOI : 10.2307/257704

E. Chiapello and P. Gilbert, Sociologie des outils de gestion, 2013.

È. Chiapello and P. Gilbert, Management Tools: A Critical Social Science Perspective, 2018.

È. Chiapello, P. Gilbert, and C. Baud, Sociologie des outils de gestion: introduction à l'analyse sociale de l'instrumentation de gestion, 2013.

R. Y. Chua, M. W. Morris, and P. Ingram, Guanxi vs networking: Distinctive configurations of affect- and cognition-based trust in the networks of Chinese vs American managers, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.25, issue.2, pp.40-490, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/S0090-2616(96)90025-X

C. Chung, P. Sparrow, and Ö. Bozkurt, South Korean MNEs??? international HRM approach: Hybridization of global standards and local practices, Journal of World Business, vol.49, issue.4, pp.549-559, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jwb.2013.12.008

J. N. Cleveland, K. R. Murphy, and R. E. Williams, Multiple uses of performance appraisal: Prevalence and correlates., Journal of Applied Psychology, vol.74, issue.1, p.130, 1989.
DOI : 10.1037/0021-9010.74.1.130

A. Colbert, N. Yee, and G. George, The Digital Workforce and the Workplace of the Future, Academy of Management Journal, vol.59, issue.3, pp.731-739, 2016.
DOI : 10.5465/amj.2016.4003

F. L. Cooke, Performance management 13 in China. Performance management systems: a global perspective, 0193.

F. L. Cooke, Human resource management in China: New trends and practices, Routledge, 2013.

F. L. Cooke and K. Huang, Postacquisition evolution of the appraisal and reward systems: A study of Chinese IT firms acquired by US firms, Human Resource Management, vol.17, issue.9, pp.50-839, 2011.
DOI : 10.1080/09585190600878352

F. L. Cooke, D. S. Saini, and J. Wang, Talent management in China and India: A comparison of management perceptions and human resource practices, Journal of World Business, vol.49, issue.2, pp.225-235, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jwb.2013.11.006

K. G. Corley and D. A. Gioia, Identity ambiguity and change in the wake of a corporate spin-off. Administrative science quarterly, pp.173-208, 2004.

M. M. Crossan, H. W. Lane, and R. E. White, An Organizational Learning Framework: From Intuition to Institution, Academy of Management Review, vol.24, issue.3, pp.522-537, 1999.
DOI : 10.5465/amr.1999.2202135

S. J. Daniel, D. Lee, and W. D. Reitsperger, Raising quality consciousness among Chinese manufacturing personnel: Testing the effectiveness of performance management tools, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, vol.44, issue.3, pp.31-549, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ssci.2006.03.005

A. Davila and M. M. Elvira, Humanistic leadership: Lessons from Latin America, Journal of World Business, vol.47, issue.4, pp.548-554, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jwb.2012.01.008

R. Depierre, , 2008.

D. Vaujany and F. X. , De la conception à l'usage: vers un management de l'appropriation des outils de gestion, 2005.

D. Vaujany and F. X. , Pour une th??orie de l'appropriation des outils de gestion??: vers un d??passement de l'opposition conception-usage, Management & Avenir, vol.9, issue.3, pp.109-126, 2006.
DOI : 10.3917/mav.009.0109

D. Vaujany and F. X. , Capturing reflexivity modes in IS: A critical realist approach. Information and Organization, pp.51-72, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00644416

D. Vaujany, F. X. Vaast, and E. , If These Walls Could Talk: The Mutual Construction of Organizational Space and Legitimacy, Organization Science, vol.25, issue.3, pp.713-731, 2013.
DOI : 10.1287/orsc.2013.0858

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01644982

J. E. Delery and D. H. Doty, Modes of Theorizing in Strategic Human Resource Management: Tests of Universalistic, Contingency, and Configurational Performance Predictions, Academy of Management Journal, vol.39, issue.4, pp.802-835, 1996.
DOI : 10.5465/256713

J. Delury, Harmonious" In China, Policy Review, issue.148, p.35, 2008.

A. S. Denisi and K. R. Murphy, Performance appraisal and performance management: 100 years of progress?, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol.102, issue.3, 2017.
DOI : 10.1037/apl0000085

A. S. Denisi, T. P. Cafferty, and B. M. Meglino, A cognitive view of the performance appraisal process: A model and research propositions, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, vol.33, issue.3, pp.360-396, 1984.
DOI : 10.1016/0030-5073(84)90029-1

N. K. Denzin and . Lincoln, The Sage handbook of qualitative research, 2011.

D. Horts and C. H. , Typologies des pratiques de gestion des ressources humaines. Revue française de gestion, pp.65-66, 1987.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00664904

D. Horts and C. H. , Vers une gestion stratégique des ressources humaines, 1988.

D. Horts, C. H. Segalla, and M. , La gestion des ressources humaines en Europe: une divergence des pratiques?(No. hal-00664172), 1998.

P. J. Dimaggio and W. W. Powell, The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields, American sociological review, pp.147-160, 1983.

P. Dowling, M. Festing, and A. D. Engle, International human resource management: Managing people in a multinational context, 2008.

Y. Doz, Qualitative research for international business, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.50, issue.1, pp.582-590, 2011.
DOI : 10.4159/harvard.9780674863019

P. F. Drucker, People and performance: The best of Peter Drucker on management, 1995.

. Routledge,

T. Edwards, R. Sánchez-mangas, P. Jalette, J. Lavelle, and D. Minbaeva, Global standardization or national differentiation of HRM practices in multinational companies? A comparison of multinationals in five countries, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.54, issue.4, pp.47-997, 2016.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2001.tb00235.x

K. M. Eisenhardt, Building theories from case study research Academy of management review, pp.532-550, 1989.

T. Elger and C. Smith, Assembling work: Remaking factory regimes in Japanese multinationals in Britain, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199241514.001.0001

S. Faraj and B. Azad, The materiality of technology: An affordance perspective Materiality and organizing: Social interaction in a technological world, pp.237-258, 2012.

M. Festing and L. Knappert, Country-Specific Profiles of Performance Management in China, Germany, and the United States-An Empirical Test, Thunderbird International Business Review, vol.54, issue.1, pp.331-351, 2014.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2001.tb00088.x

M. Foucault, Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings, pp.1972-1977, 1980.

. Pantheon,

R. Fredriksson, W. Barner-rasmussen, and R. Piekkari, The multinational corporation as a multilingual organization, Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol.11, issue.4, pp.406-423, 2006.
DOI : 10.1080/08109020110072180

M. Frenkel, The Multinational Corporation as a Third Space: Rethinking International Management Discourse on Knowledge Transfer Through Homi Bhabha, Academy of Management Review, vol.33, issue.4, pp.924-942, 2008.
DOI : 10.5465/amr.2008.34422002

E. Friedberg and M. Crozier, Actors and systems: The politics of collective action, 1980.

F. J. Froese and S. Xiao, Work values, job satisfaction and organizational commitment in China, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.27, issue.10, pp.2144-2162, 2012.
DOI : 10.1002/hrm.20201

J. Gamble, Transferring Organizational Practices and the Dynamics of Hybridization: Japanese Retail Multinationals in China, Journal of Management Studies, vol.47, issue.4, pp.705-732, 2010.
DOI : 10.1057/9780230317000_6

C. Geertz, The interpretation of cultures Basic books, 1973.

P. Gilbert and J. Yalenios, L'évaluation de la performance individuelle, 2017.

P. Gilbert and J. Yalenios, , 2017.

D. A. Gioia, K. G. Corley, and A. L. Hamilton, Seeking Qualitative Rigor in Inductive Research, Organizational Research Methods, vol.24, issue.1, pp.15-31, 2013.
DOI : 10.2307/2392360

B. G. Glaser and A. L. Strauss, The Discovery of Grounded Theory; Strategies for Qualitative Research, Nursing Research, vol.17, issue.4, 1967.
DOI : 10.1097/00006199-196807000-00014

B. G. Glaser, Basics of grounded theory analysis: Emergence vs forcing, 1992.

D. M. Gligor, C. L. Esmark, and I. Gölgeci, Building international business theory: A grounded theory approach, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.23, issue.2, pp.93-111, 2015.
DOI : 10.1080/09585192.2011.560886

S. J. Gould and A. F. Grein, Think glocally, act glocally: a culture-centric comment on Leung, Bhagat, Buchan, Erez and Gibson (2005), Journal of International Business Studies, vol.38, issue.2, pp.237-254, 2005.
DOI : 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400282

R. M. Grant, Toward a knowledge-based theory of the firm, Strategic Management Journal, vol.18, issue.4, pp.109-122, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0165-4101(94)90023-X

S. Green and . Edward, A rhetorical theory of diffusion, Academy of Management Review, vol.294, pp.653-669, 2004.

A. Grimand, L'appropriation des outils de gestion: vers de nouvelles perspectives théoriques?, 2006.

A. Grimand, L'appropriation des outils de gestion et ses effets sur les dynamiques organisationnelles??: le cas du d??ploiement d'un r??f??rentiel des emplois et des comp??tences, Management & Avenir, vol.54, issue.4, pp.237-257, 2012.
DOI : 10.3917/mav.054.0237

A. W. Harzing, An Empirical Analysis and Extension of the Bartlett and Ghoshal Typology of Multinational Companies, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.31, issue.1, pp.101-120, 2000.
DOI : 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490891

A. W. Harzing and A. Pinnington, International human resource management, 2010.

A. W. Harzing, M. Pudelko, and B. Sebastian-reiche, The Bridging Role of Expatriates and Inpatriates in Knowledge Transfer in Multinational Corporations, Human Resource Management, vol.48, issue.1, pp.679-695, 2016.
DOI : 10.1002/hrm.20271

M. Heidegger, The question concerning technology, and other essays, 1977.

P. J. Hinds, T. B. Neeley, and C. D. Cramton, Language as a lightning rod: Power contests, emotion regulation, and subgroup dynamics in global teams, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.35, issue.3, pp.45-536, 2014.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115944

J. B. Hocking, M. Brown, and A. W. Harzing, Balancing global and local strategic contexts: Expatriate knowledge transfer, applications, and learning within a transnational organization, Human Resource Management, vol.2, issue.4, pp.513-533, 2007.
DOI : 10.1080/09585199700000049

G. Hofstede, G. J. Hofstede, and M. Minkov, Culture and Organizations, International Studies of Management & Organization, vol.29, issue.2, 2010.
DOI : 10.1126/science.174.4011.795

M. Houellebecq, Renaissance. Flammarion, 2010.

Y. P. Huo, H. J. Huang, and N. K. Napier, Divergence or convergence: a cross-national comparison of personnel selection practices, Human Resource Management, vol.17, issue.1, pp.31-44, 2002.
DOI : 10.1080/09585199300000004

M. A. Huselid, The impact of human resource management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance, Academy of management journal, vol.38, issue.3, pp.635-672, 1995.

I. Hutchby, Technologies, Texts and Affordances, Sociology, vol.35, issue.2, pp.441-456, 2001.
DOI : 10.1177/016224399101600102

S. A. Jacob and S. P. Furgerson, Writing interview protocols and conducting interviews: Tips for students new to the field of qualitative research, The Qualitative Report, issue.42, pp.17-18, 2012.

I. M. Jawahar and C. R. Williams, WHERE ALL THE CHILDREN ARE ABOVE AVERAGE: THE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PURPOSE EFFECT, Personnel Psychology, vol.63, issue.4, pp.905-925, 1997.
DOI : 10.1037//0021-9010.67.6.759

R. Jensen and G. Szulanski, Stickiness and the adaptation of organizational practices in cross-border knowledge transfers, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.6, issue.6, pp.508-523, 2004.
DOI : 10.1287/orsc.6.1.76

A. Jonsson and N. J. Foss, International expansion through flexible replication: Learning from the internationalization experience of IKEA, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.38, issue.2, pp.1079-1102, 2011.
DOI : 10.2307/256683

F. Jullien, A treatise on efficacy: Between Western and Chinese thinking, 2004.

M. Keeley, A Social-Justice Approach to Organizational Evaluation, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.23, issue.2, pp.272-292, 1978.
DOI : 10.2307/2392565

C. Kerr, F. H. Harbison, J. T. Dunlop, and C. A. Myers, Industrialism and industrial man, Int'l Lab. Rev, vol.82, pp.236-149, 1960.

N. King, Template analysis Qualitative methods and analysis in organizational research: a practical guide, pp.118-134, 1998.

H. K. Klein and M. D. Myers, A Set of Principles for Conducting and Evaluating Interpretive Field Studies in Information Systems, MIS Quarterly, vol.23, issue.1, pp.67-93, 1999.
DOI : 10.2307/249410

A. N. Kluger and A. Denisi, The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory., Psychological Bulletin, vol.119, issue.2, p.254, 1996.
DOI : 10.1037/0033-2909.119.2.254

G. A. Knight and S. T. Cavusgil, Innovation, organizational capabilities, and the born-global firm, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.43, issue.2, pp.124-141, 2004.
DOI : 10.2307/1556420

B. Kogut and U. Zander, Knowledge of the Firm and the Evolutionary Theory of the Multinational Corporation, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.24, issue.4, pp.625-645, 1993.
DOI : 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490248

T. Kostova, Transnational transfer of strategic organizational practices: A contextual perspective Academy of management review, pp.308-324, 1999.

T. Kostova and K. Roth, Adoption of an organizational practice by subsidiaries of multinational corporations: Institutional and relational effects, Academy of management journal, vol.45, issue.1, pp.215-233, 2002.

B. Latour, Reassembling the social: An introduction to actor-network-theory (Clarendon Lectures in Management Studies, 2005.

B. Latour, We have never been modern, 2012.

I. Lawler, E. E. Benson, G. S. Ledford-jr, and G. E. , A Study of Cutting-Edge Performance Management Practices: Ongoing Feedback, Ratingless Reviews and Crowdsourced Feedback, 2016.

M. Lazarova and I. Tarique, Knowledge transfer upon repatriation, Journal of World Business, vol.40, issue.4, pp.361-373, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jwb.2005.08.004

G. Ledford, G. Benson, and E. Lawler, A study of cutting edge performance management practices: Ongoing feedback, ratingless reviews, and crowd-sourced feedback, WorldatWork Journal, vol.25, issue.2, 2016.

J. Lefkowitz, The role of interpersonal affective regard in supervisory performance ratings, p.150, 2000.

, A literature review and proposed causal model, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol.73, issue.1, pp.67-85

P. M. Leonardi, When Flexible Routines Meet Flexible Technologies: Affordance, Constraint, and the Imbrication of Human and Material Agencies, MIS Quarterly, vol.35, issue.1, pp.147-167, 2011.
DOI : 10.2307/23043493

P. M. Leonardi, Materiality, sociomateriality, and socio-technical systems: What do these terms mean? How are they different? Do we need them Materiality and organizing: Social interaction in a technological world, p.25, 2012.

P. M. Leonardi, Theoretical foundations for the study of sociomateriality. Information and Organization, pp.59-76, 2013.

P. Leonardi and E. Vaast, Social Media and Their Affordances for Organizing: A Review and Agenda for Research, Academy of Management Annals, vol.11, issue.1, p.2015, 2016.
DOI : 10.5465/annals.2015.0144

K. Leung, R. S. Bhagat, N. R. Buchan, M. Erez, and C. B. Gibson, Culture and international business: recent advances and their implications for future research, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.6, issue.2, pp.357-378, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/1467-839X.t01-1-00010

K. Leung, P. T. Koch, and L. Lu, A dualistic model of harmony and its implications for conflict management in Asia, Asia Pacific Journal of Management, vol.19, issue.2/3, pp.201-220, 2002.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1016287501806

P. E. Levy and J. R. Williams, The Social Context of Performance Appraisal: A Review and Framework for the Future, Journal of Management, vol.23, issue.3, pp.881-905, 2004.
DOI : 10.1177/1094428102239423

R. E. Lewis and R. J. Heckman, Talent management: A critical review. Human resource management review, pp.139-154, 2006.

S. Li and P. L. Nesbit, An exploration of the HRM values of Chinese managers working in Western multinational enterprises in China: implications for HR practice, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.17, issue.11, pp.25-1529, 2014.
DOI : 10.1142/4073

Y. S. Lincoln and E. G. Guba, Sage, Naturalistic inquiry, vol.75, 1985.

N. Lindholm, National culture and performance management in MNC subsidiaries. International studies of management & organization, pp.45-66, 1999.
DOI : 10.1080/00208825.1999.11656775

E. A. Locke, G. P. Latham, and M. Erez, The determinants of goal commitment. Academy of 151 management review, pp.23-39, 1988.

X. Lu, W. Jia, and . Heisey, Chinese communication studies: Contexts and comparisons, 2002.

S. L. Mcgaughey and H. D. Cieri, Reassessment of convergence and divergence dynamics: implications for international HRM, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.10, issue.2, pp.235-250, 1999.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-349-15133-2

J. W. Meyer and B. Rowan, Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony, American Journal of Sociology, vol.83, issue.2, pp.340-363, 1977.
DOI : 10.1086/226550

R. Mir and A. Watson, Strategic management and the philosophy of science: the case for a constructivist methodology, Strategic Management Journal, vol.22, issue.9, pp.941-953, 2000.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1533-8525.1981.tb00655.x

G. Morgan, Transnational communities and business systems, Global Networks, vol.1, issue.2, pp.113-130, 2001.
DOI : 10.1111/1471-0374.00008

E. Morin, Seven complex lessons in education for the future, Unesco, p.15, 2002.

K. R. Murphy and J. Cleveland, Performance appraisal., pp.25-72, 1991.
DOI : 10.1037/14047-033

K. R. Murphy and J. Cleveland, Understanding performance appraisal: Social, organizational, and goal-based perspectives, 1995.

M. D. Myers and M. Newman, The qualitative interview in IS research: Examining the craft. Information and organization, pp.2-26, 2007.

T. Neeley, Global business speaks English: Why you need a language strategy now, 2012.

T. B. Neeley, Language Matters: Status Loss and Achieved Status Distinctions in Global Organizations, Organization Science, vol.24, issue.2, pp.476-497, 2013.
DOI : 10.1287/orsc.1120.0739

P. C. Nutt, Tactics of implementation, Academy of Management Journal, vol.29, issue.2, pp.230-261, 1986.

A. Ollier-malaterre, N. P. Rothbard, and J. M. Berg, When Worlds Collide in Cyberspace: How Boundary Work in Online Social Networks Impacts Professional Relationships, Academy of Management Review, vol.38, issue.4, pp.645-669, 2013.
DOI : 10.5465/amr.2011.0235

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00785979

W. J. Orlikowski, Sociomaterial practices: Exploring technology at work. Organization 152 studies, pp.1435-1448, 2007.
DOI : 10.1177/0170840607081138

W. J. Orlikowski, The sociomateriality of organisational life: considering technology in management research, Cambridge Journal of Economics, vol.18, issue.5, pp.125-141, 2009.
DOI : 10.1287/orsc.1070.0307

W. J. Orlikowski, Practice in research: phenomenon, perspective and philosophy. Cambridge handbook of strategy as practice, pp.23-33, 2010.
DOI : 10.1017/cbo9781139681032.002

W. J. Orlikowski and S. V. Scott, 10 sociomateriality: challenging the separation of technology, work and organization. The academy of management annals, pp.433-474, 2008.

W. J. Orlikowski and S. V. Scott, What Happens When Evaluation Goes Online? Exploring Apparatuses of Valuation in the Travel Sector, Organization Science, vol.25, issue.3, pp.868-891, 2013.
DOI : 10.1287/orsc.2013.0877

D. Oyserman, H. M. Coon, and M. Kemmelmeier, Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses., Psychological Bulletin, vol.128, issue.1, 2002.
DOI : 10.1037/0033-2909.128.1.3

A. C. Pache and F. Santos, Inside the Hybrid Organization: Selective Coupling as a Response to Competing Institutional Logics, Academy of Management Journal, vol.56, issue.4, pp.972-1001, 2013.
DOI : 10.5465/amj.2011.0405

M. Q. Patton, Variety in Qualitative Inquiry, Qualitative Research & Evaluation Methods, 2002.

M. Q. Patton, Qualitative evaluation and research methods, 1990.

C. Perrow, A Framework for the Comparative Analysis of Organizations, American Sociological Review, vol.32, issue.2, pp.194-208, 1967.
DOI : 10.2307/2091811

A. M. Pettigrew, Longitudinal field research on change: Theory and practice. Organization science, pp.267-292, 1990.
DOI : 10.1287/orsc.1.3.267

S. Pichler, The social context of performance appraisal and appraisal reactions: A meta-analysis, Human Resource Management, vol.25, issue.3, pp.709-732, 2012.
DOI : 10.1002/job.245

N. Pollock, Ranking devices: The socio-materiality of ratings Materiality and organizing: Social interaction in a technological world, p.91, 2012.

M. G. Pratt, From the Editors: For the Lack of a Boilerplate: Tips on Writing Up (and Reviewing) Qualitative Research, Academy of Management Journal, vol.52, issue.5, pp.856-862, 2009.
DOI : 10.5465/amj.2009.44632557

M. Pudelko, Cross-national learning from best practice and the convergence-divergence debate in HRM, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.54, issue.11, pp.2045-2074, 2005.
DOI : 10.1057/palgrave.abm.9200029

M. Pudelko and A. W. Harzing, Country-of-origin, localization, or dominance effect? An empirical investigation of HRM practices in foreign subsidiaries, Human Resource Management, vol.40, issue.4, pp.535-559, 2007.
DOI : 10.4159/harvard.9780674366299

P. Quattrone and T. Hopper, What is IT?, Information and Organization, vol.16, issue.3, pp.212-250, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.infoandorg.2006.06.001

D. A. Ralston, The crossvergence perspective: reflections and projections, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.4, issue.3, pp.27-40, 2008.
DOI : 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490982

B. S. Reiche, Knowledge transfer in multinationals: The role of inpatriates' boundary spanning, Human Resource Management, vol.27, issue.6, pp.365-389, 2011.
DOI : 10.1177/014920630102700607

A. Rheinhardt, G. E. Kreiner, D. A. Gioia, and K. G. Corley, Conducting and Publishing Rigorous Qualitative Research The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Business and Management Research Methods, Sage, 2018.

E. M. Rogers, Diffusion of innovations, 2010.

P. M. Rosenzweig, When Can Management Science Research Be Generalized Internationally?, Management Science, vol.40, issue.1, pp.28-39, 1994.
DOI : 10.1287/mnsc.40.1.28

P. M. Rosenzweig and N. Nohria, Influences on Human Resource Management Practices in Multinational Corporations, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.25, issue.2, pp.229-251, 1994.
DOI : 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490199

C. Rowley and J. Benson, Convergence and divergence in Asian human resource management. California management review, pp.90-109, 2002.
DOI : 10.2307/41166124

URL : http://www.reims-ms.fr/agrh/docs/actes-agrh/pdf-des-actes/2000rowley-benson087.pdf

W. D. Salisbury, W. W. Chin, A. Gopal, and P. R. Newsted, Research Report: Better Theory Through Measurement???Developing a Scale to Capture Consensus on Appropriation, Information Systems Research, vol.13, issue.1, pp.91-103, 2002.
DOI : 10.1287/isre.

J. Sandberg and H. Tsoukas, Grasping the logic of practice: Theorizing through practical rationality, Academy of Management Review, vol.36, issue.2, pp.338-360, 2011.

T. R. Schatzki, Peripheral Vision, Organization Studies, vol.26, issue.3, pp.465-484, 2005.
DOI : 10.2307/2393372

D. A. Schon, The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action Basic books, 1984.

R. S. Schuler, Strategic human resources management: Linking the people with the strategic needs of the business, Organizational Dynamics, vol.21, issue.1, pp.18-32, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0090-2616(92)90083-Y

W. R. Scott and G. F. Davis, Organizations and organizing: Rational, natural and open systems perspectives, 2015.

M. A. Shadur, J. J. Rodwell, and G. J. Bomber, The adoption of international best practices in a Western culture: East meets West, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.30, issue.3, pp.735-757, 1995.
DOI : 10.2307/258804

D. A. Shepherd and K. M. Sutcliffe, Inductive top-down theorizing: A source of new theories of organization, Academy of Management Review, vol.36, issue.2, pp.361-380, 2011.

M. ?liwa and M. Johansson, How non-native English-speaking staff are evaluated in linguistically diverse organizations: A sociolinguistic perspective, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.4, issue.2, pp.45-1133, 2014.
DOI : 10.1177/0261927X8500400203

S. St-onge and V. Haines, Gestion des performances au travail: bilan des connaissances, 2007.

D. Boeck,

P. Stiles, J. Trevor, E. Farndale, S. S. Morris, J. Paauwe et al., , 2015.

, Changing routine: Reframing performance management within a multinational, Journal of Management Studies, vol.52, issue.1, pp.63-88

P. Stokes, Y. Liu, S. Smith, S. Leidner, N. Moore et al., Managing talent across advanced and emerging economies: HR issues and challenges in a Sino-German strategic collaboration, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.47, issue.20, pp.27-2310, 2016.
DOI : 10.1080/09585190600965282

A. Strauss and J. Corbin, Grounded theory methodology. Handbook of qualitative research, pp.273-285, 1994.

Z. X. Su and P. M. Wright, The effective human resource management system in transitional China: a hybrid of commitment and control practices, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.27, issue.2, p.155, 2012.
DOI : 10.1080/09585190600965282

, Human Resource Management, vol.23, issue.10, pp.2065-2086

J. Sumelius, I. Björkman, M. Ehrnrooth, K. Mäkelä, and A. Smale, What Determines Employee Perceptions of HRM Process Features? The Case of Performance Appraisal in MNC Subsidiaries, Human Resource Management, vol.19, issue.4, pp.569-592, 2014.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1748-8583.2008.00067.x

J. Sun, Organization development and change in Chinese state???owned enterprises: a human resource perspective, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol.21, issue.8, pp.379-389, 2000.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1464-0597.1991.tb01353.x

G. Szulanski, Exploring internal stickiness: Impediments to the transfer of best practice within the firm. Strategic management journal, pp.27-43, 1996.

G. Szulanski and R. J. Jensen, Presumptive adaptation and the effectiveness of knowledge transfer, Strategic Management Journal, vol.72, issue.10, pp.937-957, 2006.
DOI : 10.4159/harvard.9780674437036

I. Tarique, D. R. Briscoe, and R. S. Schuler, International Human Resource Management: Policies and Practices for Multinational Enterprises, 2015.

C. J. Thompson and Z. Arsel, The Starbucks Brandscape and Consumers??? (Anticorporate) Experiences of Glocalization, Journal of Consumer Research, vol.31, issue.3, pp.631-642, 2004.
DOI : 10.1086/425098

D. Tjosvold, C. Hui, and K. S. Law, Constructive conflict in China: cooperative conflict as a bridge between East and West, Journal of World Business, vol.36, issue.2, pp.166-183, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S1090-9516(01)00051-7

P. S. Tolbert and L. G. Zucker, Institutional sources of change in the formal structure of organizations: The diffusion of civil service reform Administrative science quarterly, pp.1880-1935, 1983.

T. Perrin, Gestion du rendement : tendances et pratiques : perspectives globales, document non publié présenté par Jean-François Vernet, 2009.

B. Townley, Foucault, power/knowledge, and its relevance for human resource management, Academy of Management review, vol.183, pp.518-545, 1993.

O. Tregaskis and C. Brewster, Converging or diverging? A comparative analysis of trends in contingent employment practice in Europe over a decade, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.45, issue.1, pp.111-126, 2006.
DOI : 10.2307/3069294

C. J. Tsai and W. L. Wang, Exploring the factors associated with employees' perceived 156 appraisal accuracy: a study of Chinese state-owned enterprises, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, issue.11, pp.24-2197, 2013.

H. Tsoukas and R. Chia, On organizational becoming: Rethinking organizational change. Organization science, pp.567-582, 2002.

R. L. Tung and C. Baumann, Comparing the attitudes toward money, material possessions and savings of overseas Chinese vis-??-vis Chinese in China: convergence, divergence or cross-vergence, vis-??-vis ???one size fits all??? human resource management policies and practices, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.6, issue.11, pp.20-2382, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00289894

S. Värlander, P. Hinds, B. Thomason, B. M. Pearce, and H. Altman, Enacting a Constellation of Logics: How Transferred Practices Are Recontextualized in a Global Organization, Academy of Management Discoveries, vol.2, issue.1, pp.79-107, 2016.
DOI : 10.5465/amd.2015.0020

J. Wang, K. Leung, and F. Zhou, A dispositional approach to psychological climate: Relationships between interpersonal harmony motives and psychological climate for communication safety, Human Relations, vol.25, issue.4, pp.489-515, 2014.
DOI : 10.1086/651257

Z. M. Wang and S. Wang, Modelling regional HRM strategies in China: An entrepreneurship perspective, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.5, issue.1, pp.945-963, 2008.
DOI : 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400282

M. Warner, Reassessing human resource management 'with Chinese characteristics': an overview. The international journal of human resource management, pp.771-801, 2008.

K. E. Weick, Theory construction as disciplined imagination Academy of management review, pp.516-531, 1989.

K. E. Weick, Theory construction as disciplined reflexivity: Tradeoffs in the 90s, Academy of Management Review, vol.24, issue.4, pp.797-806, 1999.

C. Welch, R. Piekkari, E. Plakoyiannaki, and E. Paavilainen-mäntymäki, Theorising from case studies: Towards a pluralist future for international business research, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.15, issue.2, pp.42-740, 2011.
DOI : 10.1080/08870440008400302

R. Whitley, Business systems in East Asia: Firms, markets and societies, Sage, 1992.

J. Woodward, Management and technology (No. 3) HM Stationery Off, p.157, 1958.

S. E. Woolgar, Knowledge and reflexivity: New frontiers in the sociology of knowledge, 1988.

P. M. Wright and W. R. Boswell, Desegregating HRM: A Review and Synthesis of Micro and Macro Human Resource Management Research, Journal of Management, vol.23, issue.3, pp.247-276, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/1053-4822(91)90015-5

P. M. Wright and S. A. Snell, Toward a Unifying Framework for Exploring Fit and Flexibility in Strategic Human Resource Management, Academy of Management Review, vol.23, issue.4, pp.756-772, 1998.
DOI : 10.5465/amr.1998.1255637

D. Yahiaoui, Hybridization: striking a balance between adoption and adaptation of human resource management practices in French multinational corporations and their Tunisian subsidiaries, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol.27, issue.13, pp.26-1665, 2015.
DOI : 10.1080/08832329809601661

C. Yang and S. Modell, Power and performance, Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol.26, issue.1, pp.101-132, 2012.
DOI : 10.1017/S0010417500015656

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inria-00492998

R. K. Yin, Case study research: Design and methods, 2013.

J. Yu and S. Zaheer, Building a process model of local adaptation of practices: A study of Six Sigma implementation in Korean and US firms, Journal of International Business Studies, vol.38, issue.2, pp.41-475, 2010.
DOI : 10.2307/256683

Y. Zhang, L. Long, T. Y. Wu, and X. Huang, When is pay for performance related to employee creativity in the Chinese context? The role of guanxi HRM practice, trust in management, and intrinsic motivation, Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol.6, issue.5, pp.698-719, 2015.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1740-8784.2010.00192.x

J. Zhou and J. J. Martocchio, CHINESE AND AMERICAN MANAGERS' COMPENSATION AWARD DECISIONS: A COMPARATIVE POLICY-CAPTURING STUDY, Personnel Psychology, vol.18, issue.1, pp.115-145, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/0030-5073(77)90018-6

Y. Zhu, M. Warner, and C. Rowley, Human resource management with 'Asian'characteristics: a hybrid people-management system in East Asia. The international journal of human resource management, pp.745-768, 2007.

@. What and . Xxxx, Worldwide and China) expectations about your team members (regarding results/behaviours)? How do they cascade organizational objectives (Values/Financial objectives/safety objectives ?)? Do you sometimes face contradictions between local and global objectives?

, what are the main contradictions or challenges when you assess the performance of your team members? How do you manage these contradictions? ? More specifically how do you manage the oppositions between: individual/team objectives; talking about development and sanctions (results/money) during the performance appraisal; short term VS long term (of the your team performance); focus on intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, ? According to you