D. Of and T. , OF CONTENTS, vol.4, issue.1, p.49

O. The and C. , , p.51

M. , C. Systems, . Any, and .. Of-criticality-lev-els, , p.52

E. Task and M. , , p.55

C. Generalisation, . Of, .. System-model, . Generalisation, . Of et al., 57 TABLE OF CONTENTS 7 122 7, 139 8.2 TASK ELASTICITY AND SLACK TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 8.3 DETERMINING THE TIMING PARAMETERS OF, p.146

R. Of and .. Optimisation-problem, , p.150

D. , 155 TABLE OF CONTENTS 10, p.165

P. , , p.172

G. , , p.173

É. De and G. , , p.178

O. Des and S. , , p.182

O. Des and T. , , p.185

C. , 187 10.1 Introduction Ce document résume les travaux effectués dans

, Institut de Recherche Technologique SystemX (IRT SystemX) dans le cadre du projet Électronique et Logiciel pour l'Automobile (ELA) Ce projet a regroupé de nombreux acteurs de la filière automobile française, comme Renault, le groupe PSA, Continental et Valéo ainsi que l'Institut Mines?Télécom, Curie et des PMEs comme Smile (anciennement Open- Wide) et Intempora

G. Gratia, T. Robert, and L. Pautet, Adaptation of run to mixed-criticality systems, List of Publications [ Proceedings of the 8th Junior Researcher Workshop on Real-Time Computing, JRWRTC'2014, pp.25-28

[. Gratia, T. Robert, and L. Pautet, Generalized mixedcriticality scheduling based on RUN, Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Real Time Networks and Systems, RTNS 2015, pp.267-276, 2015.
DOI : 10.1145/2834848.2834873

[. Gratia, T. Robert, and L. Pautet, Scheduling of mixedcriticality systems with RUN, 20th IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation, ETFA 2015, pp.1-8, 2015.
DOI : 10.1109/etfa.2015.7301484

, Bibliography

A. Avizienis, J. Laprie, B. Randell, and C. Landwehr, Basic concepts and taxonomy of dependable and secure computing, IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, vol.1, issue.1, pp.11-33, 2004.
DOI : 10.1109/TDSC.2004.2

R. W. Stence, Digital By-Wire Replaces Mechanical Systems in Cars, SAE Technical Paper Series, 2004.
DOI : 10.4271/2004-01-2926

M. Broy, I. H. Kruger, A. Pretschner, and C. Salzmann, Engineering automotive software, Proceedings of the IEEE, pp.356-373, 2007.

M. Broy, Automotive software and systems engineering, " in Formal Methods and Models for Co-Design, MEMOCODE'05. Proceedings. Third ACM and IEEE International Conference on, pp.143-149, 2005.

A. Zahir and P. Palmieri, OSEK/VDX - operating systems for automotive applications, IEE Seminar OSEK/VDX Open Systems in Automotive Networks, pp.4-5, 1998.
DOI : 10.1049/ic:19981075

J. Reineke, B. Wachter, S. Thesing, R. Wilhelm, I. Polian et al., A Definition and Classification of Timing Anomalies, 6th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis (WCET'06) of OpenAccess Series in Informatics (OASIcs) Schloss Dagstuhl?Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik, 2006.

H. Shah, K. Huang, and A. Knoll, Timing anomalies in multi-core architectures due to the interference on the shared resources, 2014 19th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC), pp.708-713, 2014.
DOI : 10.1109/ASPDAC.2014.6742973

R. Wilhelm, J. Engblom, A. Ermedahl, N. Holsti, S. Thesing et al., The worst-case execution-time problem overview of methods and Bibliography survey of tools, ACM Trans. Embed. Comput. Syst, vol.7, pp.361-397, 2008.

A. Blin, C. Courtaud, J. Sopena, J. Lawall, and G. Muller, Maximizing Parallelism without Exploding Deadlines in a Mixed Criticality Embedded System, 2016 28th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS), 2016.
DOI : 10.1109/ECRTS.2016.18

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01268078

T. Moscibroda and O. Mutlu, Memory performance attacks: Denial of memory service in multi-core systems, Proceedings of 16th USENIX Security Symposium on USENIX Security Symposium, SS'07, pp.1-1818, 2007.

J. Nowotsch and M. Paulitsch, Leveraging Multi-core Computing Architectures in Avionics, 2012 Ninth European Dependable Computing Conference, pp.132-143, 2012.
DOI : 10.1109/EDCC.2012.27

J. Rushby, Partitioning for safety and security: Requirements, mechanisms, and assurance

P. J. Prisaznuk, ARINC 653 role in Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA), 2008 IEEE/AIAA 27th Digital Avionics Systems Conference, p.1, 2008.
DOI : 10.1109/DASC.2008.4702770

A. Schranzhofer, J. Chen, and L. Thiele, Timing Analysis for TDMA Arbitration in Resource Sharing Systems, 2010 16th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, 2010.
DOI : 10.1109/RTAS.2010.24

X. Jean, D. Faura, M. Gatti, L. Pautet, and T. Robert, Ensuring robust partitioning in multicore platforms for IMA systems, 2012 IEEE/AIAA 31st Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC), pp.7-11, 2012.
DOI : 10.1109/DASC.2012.6382408

S. Vestal, Preemptive Scheduling of Multi-criticality Systems with Varying Degrees of Execution Time Assurance, 28th IEEE International Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2007), pp.239-243, 2007.
DOI : 10.1109/RTSS.2007.47

A. Esper, G. Nelissen, V. Nélis, and E. Tovar, How realistic is the mixed-criticality real-time system model?, Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Real Time and Networks Systems, RTNS '15, pp.139-148, 2015.
DOI : 10.1109/RTSS.2007.47

J. Real and A. Crespo, Mode Change Protocols for Real-Time Systems: A Survey and a New Proposal, Real-Time Systems, vol.26, issue.2, pp.161-197, 2004.
DOI : 10.1023/B:TIME.0000016129.97430.c6

G. C. Buttazzo, G. Lipari, and L. Abeni, Elastic task model for adaptive rate control, Proceedings 19th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (Cat. No.98CB36279), pp.286-295, 1998.
DOI : 10.1109/REAL.1998.739754

URL : http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~lee/01cis642/papers/BLA98.pdf

F. Santy, L. George, P. Thierry, and J. Goossens, Relaxing Mixed-Criticality Scheduling Strictness for Task Sets Scheduled with FP, 2012 24th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, pp.155-165, 2012.
DOI : 10.1109/ECRTS.2012.39

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01678618

F. Santy, G. Raravi, G. Nelissen, V. Nelis, P. Kumar et al., Two protocols to reduce the criticality level of multiprocessor mixed-criticality systems, Proceedings of the 21st International conference on Real-Time Networks and Systems, RTNS '13, pp.183-192, 2013.
DOI : 10.1145/2516821.2516834

I. Bate, A. Burns, and R. I. Davis, A Bailout Protocol for Mixed Criticality Systems, 2015 27th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, pp.259-268, 2015.
DOI : 10.1109/ECRTS.2015.30

URL : http://www-users.cs.york.ac.uk/%7Erobdavis/papers/BailoutECRTS2015.pdf

C. L. Sudarshan and K. Dhall, On a real-time scheduling problem, Operations Research, vol.26, issue.1, pp.127-140, 1978.

L. George, P. Courbin, and Y. Sorel, Job vs. portioned partitioning for the earliest deadline first semi-partitioned scheduling, Journal of Systems Architecture, vol.57, issue.5, pp.518-535, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.sysarc.2011.02.008

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01107668

S. Funk and S. K. Baruah, Restricting EDF migration on uniform heterogeneous multiprocessors, Techniques et sciences informatiques, vol.24, issue.8, 2005.
DOI : 10.3166/tsi.24.917-938

URL : http://www.cs.uga.edu/~shelby/pubs/FunkBaruah.pdf

J. M. Calandrino, H. Leontyev, A. Block, U. C. Devi, and J. H. Anderson, LITMUS^RT : A Testbed for Empirically Comparing Real-Time Multiprocessor Schedulers, 2006 27th IEEE International Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS'06), pp.111-126, 2006.
DOI : 10.1109/RTSS.2006.27

B. B. Brandenburg, J. M. Calandrino, and J. H. Anderson, On the Scalability of Real-Time Scheduling Algorithms on Multicore Platforms: A Case Study, 2008 Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp.157-169, 2008.
DOI : 10.1109/RTSS.2008.23

, Bibliography

B. B. Brandenburg and J. H. Anderson, On the Implementation of Global Real-Time Schedulers, 2009 30th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp.214-224, 2009.
DOI : 10.1109/RTSS.2009.23

A. Bastoni, B. B. Brandenburg, and J. H. Anderson, Is Semi-Partitioned Scheduling Practical?, 2011 23rd Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, pp.125-135, 2011.
DOI : 10.1109/ECRTS.2011.20

B. Kalyanasundaram and K. Pruhs, Speed is as powerful as clairvoyance, Journal of the ACM, vol.47, issue.4, pp.617-643, 2000.
DOI : 10.1145/347476.347479

R. I. Davis and A. Burns, A survey of hard real-time scheduling for multiprocessor systems, ACM Computing Surveys, vol.43, issue.4, pp.1-3544, 2011.
DOI : 10.1145/1978802.1978814

J. L. Herman, C. J. Kenna, M. S. Mollison, J. H. Anderson, and D. M. Johnson, RTOS Support for Multicore Mixed-Criticality Systems, 2012 IEEE 18th Real Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, pp.197-208, 2012.
DOI : 10.1109/RTAS.2012.24

P. Rodriguez, L. George, Y. Abdeddaïm, and J. Goossens, Multicriteria evaluation of partitioned edf-vd for mixed-criticality systems upon identical processors, 1st Workshop on Mixed Criticality Systems (WMC), IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp.49-54, 2013.

J. Lee, K. M. Phan, X. Gu, J. Lee, A. Easwaran et al., MC-Fluid: Fluid Model-Based Mixed-Criticality Scheduling on Multiprocessors, 2014 IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp.2014-2055, 2014.
DOI : 10.1109/RTSS.2014.32

A. Bastoni, B. B. Brandenburg, and J. H. Anderson, An Empirical Comparison of Global, Partitioned, and Clustered Multiprocessor EDF Schedulers, 2010 31st IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp.14-24, 2010.
DOI : 10.1109/RTSS.2010.23

D. Compagnin, E. Mezzetti, and T. Vardanega, Putting RUN into Practice: Implementation and Evaluation, 2014 26th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, pp.75-84, 2014.
DOI : 10.1109/ECRTS.2014.27

C. L. Liu and J. W. Layland, Scheduling Algorithms for Multiprogramming in a Hard-Real-Time Environment, Journal of the ACM, vol.20, issue.1, pp.46-61, 1973.
DOI : 10.1145/321738.321743

B. Andersson, S. Baruah, and J. Jonsson, Static-priority scheduling on multiprocessors, Proceedings 22nd IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2001) (Cat. No.01PR1420), pp.193-202, 2001.
DOI : 10.1109/REAL.2001.990610

B. Andersson and E. Tovar, Multiprocessor Scheduling with Few Preemptions, 12th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA'06), pp.322-334, 2006.
DOI : 10.1109/RTCSA.2006.45

URL : http://www.hurray.isep.ipp.pt/privfiles/tr-hurray-060811.pdf

K. Bletsas and B. Andersson, Preemption-light multiprocessor scheduling of sporadic tasks with high utilisation bound, Proceedings of the 2009 30th IEEE Real- Time Systems Symposium, RTSS '09, pp.447-456, 2009.
DOI : 10.1109/rtss.2009.16

S. K. Baruah, N. K. Cohen, C. G. Plaxton, and D. A. Varvel, Proportionate progress, Proceedings of the twenty-fifth annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing , STOC '93, pp.345-354, 1993.
DOI : 10.1145/167088.167194

P. Regnier, G. Lima, E. Massa, G. Levin, and S. Brandt, RUN: Optimal Multiprocessor Real-Time Scheduling via Reduction to Uniprocessor, 2011 IEEE 32nd Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp.2011-2043, 2011.
DOI : 10.1109/RTSS.2011.17

G. Nelissen, V. Berten, V. Nélis, J. Goossens, and D. Milojevic, U-EDF: An Unfair But Optimal Multiprocessor Scheduling Algorithm for Sporadic Tasks, 2012 24th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, pp.13-23, 2012.
DOI : 10.1109/ECRTS.2012.36

URL : https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/151588/1/U-EDF-ECRTS2012.pdf

S. K. Baruah, Optimal utilization bounds for the fixed-priority scheduling of periodic task systems on identical multiprocessors, IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol.53, issue.6, pp.781-784, 2004.
DOI : 10.1109/TC.2004.16

A. Burns and R. Davis, Mixed criticality systems: a review
DOI : 10.1109/tc.2018.2831227

K. Lakshmanan, D. D. Niz, R. R. Rajkumar, and G. Moreno, Resource Allocation in Distributed Mixed-Criticality Cyber-Physical Systems, 2010 IEEE 30th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, pp.169-178, 2010.
DOI : 10.1109/ICDCS.2010.91

URL : http://varma.ece.cmu.edu/SysWeaver/Allocation.pdf

D. D. Niz, K. Lakshmanan, and R. Rajkumar, On the Scheduling of Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Task Sets, 2009 30th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp.291-300, 2009.
DOI : 10.1109/RTSS.2009.46

URL : http://varma.ece.cmu.edu/SysWeaver/Mixed.pdf

, Bibliography

S. Baruah, B. Chattopadhyay, H. Li, and I. Shin, Mixed-criticality scheduling on multiprocessors, Real-Time Systems, vol.20, issue.1, pp.142-177, 2014.
DOI : 10.1145/321738.321743

S. Baruah, V. Bonifaci, G. Dangelo, H. Li, A. Marchetti-spaccamela et al., The Preemptive Uniprocessor Scheduling of Mixed-Criticality Implicit-Deadline Sporadic Task Systems, 2012 24th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, pp.145-154, 2012.
DOI : 10.1109/ECRTS.2012.42

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00728995

H. Xu and A. Burns, Semi-partitioned model for dual-core mixed criticality system, Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Real Time and Networks Systems, RTNS '15, pp.257-266, 2015.
DOI : 10.1109/RTSS.2007.47

S. K. Baruah, A. Burns, and R. I. Davis, Response-Time Analysis for Mixed Criticality Systems, 2011 IEEE 32nd Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp.34-43, 2011.
DOI : 10.1109/RTSS.2011.12

URL : http://www-users.cs.york.ac.uk/%7Erobdavis/papers/MC_RTSS2011.pdf

K. Bletsas and S. M. Petters, Using NPS-F for mixed-criticality multicore systems, ACM SIGBED Review, vol.10, issue.2, pp.36-36, 2013.
DOI : 10.1145/2518148.2518174

H. Li and S. Baruah, Global mixed-criticality scheduling on multiprocessors, ECRTS'2012, pp.166-175, 2012.

S. Baruah, A. Eswaran, and Z. Guo, MC-Fluid: Simplified and Optimally Quantified, 2015 IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp.327-337, 2015.
DOI : 10.1109/RTSS.2015.38

S. Ramanathan and A. Easwaran, Mc-fluid: rate assignment strategies, 3rd Workshop on Mixed Criticality Systems (WMC), IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp.6-11, 2015.

M. S. Mollison, J. P. Erickson, J. H. Anderson, S. K. Baruah, and J. A. Scoredos, Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Scheduling for Multicore Systems, 2010 10th IEEE International Conference on Computer and Information Technology, pp.1864-1871, 2010.
DOI : 10.1109/CIT.2010.320

URL : http://cs.unc.edu/%7Eanderson/papers/icess10.pdf

H. Su, D. Zhu, and D. Mossé, Scheduling algorithms for Elastic Mixed-Criticality tasks in multicore systems, 2013 IEEE 19th International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, pp.352-357, 2013.
DOI : 10.1109/RTCSA.2013.6732239

URL : http://venom.cs.utsa.edu/dmz/techrep/2013/CS-TR-2013-010.pdf

H. Su and D. Zhu, An Elastic Mixed-Criticality Task Model and Its Scheduling Algorithm, Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE), 2013, pp.147-152, 2013.
DOI : 10.7873/DATE.2013.043

Z. Al-bayati, Q. Zhao, A. Youssef, H. Zeng, and Z. Gu, Enhanced partitioned scheduling of Mixed-Criticality Systems on multicore platforms, The 20th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference, pp.630-635, 2015.
DOI : 10.1109/ASPDAC.2015.7059079

G. C. Buttazzo, Rate Monotonic vs. EDF: Judgment Day, Real-Time Systems, vol.29, issue.1, pp.5-26, 2005.
DOI : 10.1023/B:TIME.0000048932.30002.d9

URL : http://beru.univ-brest.fr/~singhoff/cheddar/publications/buttazzo05.pdf

P. Holman and J. H. Anderson, Adapting pfair scheduling for symmetric multiprocessors, J. Embedded Comput, vol.1, pp.543-564, 2005.

S. Baruah, V. Bonifaci, G. D. Angelo, H. Li, A. Marchetti-spaccamela et al., Scheduling Real-Time Mixed-Criticality Jobs, IEEE Transactions on Computers, vol.61, issue.8, pp.1140-1152, 2012.
DOI : 10.1109/TC.2011.142

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00643942

A. Burns, An augmented model for mixed criticality Mixed Criticality on Multicore, 2015.

S. Baruah and Z. Guo, Mixed-criticality job models: a comparison, 3rd Workshop on Mixed Criticality Systems (WMC), IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp.1-5, 2015.

D. Selicean, Design of Mixed-Criticality Applications on Distributed Real- Time Systems, 2014.

I. Shin and I. Lee, Periodic resource model for compositional real-time guarantees, Real-Time Systems Symposium, 2003. RTSS 2003. 24th IEEE, pp.2-13, 2003.

R. I. Davis and A. Burns, Hierarchical Fixed Priority Pre-Emptive Scheduling, 26th IEEE International Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS'05), pp.10-398, 2005.
DOI : 10.1109/RTSS.2005.25

URL : http://www.cs.york.ac.uk/ftpdir/reports/YCS-2005-385.pdf

L. Sha, J. P. Lehoczky, and R. Rajkumar, Solutions for some practical problems in prioritized preemptive scheduling, Proceedings of the 7th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS'86), pp.181-191, 1986.

J. Lee, L. T. Phan, S. Chen, O. Sokolsky, and I. Lee, Improving resource utilization for compositional scheduling using DPRM interfaces, ACM SIGBED Review, vol.8, issue.1, pp.38-45, 2011.
DOI : 10.1145/1967021.1967026

URL : https://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1487&context=cis_papers

, Bibliography

S. Funk, G. Levin, C. Sadowski, I. Pye, and S. Brandt, DP-Fair: a unifying theory for optimal hard real-time multiprocessor scheduling, Real-Time Systems, vol.1, issue.1, pp.389-429, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02341920

J. A. Parejo, A. Ruiz-cortés, S. Lozano, and P. Fernandez, Metaheuristic optimization frameworks: a survey and benchmarking, Soft Computing, vol.3, issue.4, pp.527-561, 2012.
DOI : 10.1109/4235.797969

D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning

M. Boston, , 1989.

S. Luke, E. Of-metaheuristics, and . Lulu, , 2013.

J. Dréo, A. Petrowski, P. Siarry, and E. Taillard, Métaheuristiques pour l'optimisation difficile. Eyrolles, 2003.

F. Fortin, F. De-rainville, M. Gardner, M. Parizeau, and C. Gagné, DEAP: Evolutionary algorithms made easy, Journal of Machine Learning Research, vol.13, pp.2171-2175, 2012.

P. Emberson, R. Stafford, and R. I. Davis, Techniques for the synthesis of multiprocessor tasksets, WATERS'2010, pp.6-11, 2010.

A. Bastoni, B. B. Brandenburg, and J. H. Anderson, Cache-related preemption and migration delays: Empirical approximation and impact on schedulability

J. W. Liu, K. Lin, W. Shih, A. C. Yu, J. Chung et al., Algorithms for scheduling imprecise computations, Computer, vol.24, issue.5, pp.58-68, 1991.
DOI : 10.1109/2.76287

J. Theis, G. Fohler, and S. Baruah, Schedule table generation for time-triggered mixed criticality systems, 1st Workshop on Mixed Criticality Systems (WMC), IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp.79-84, 2013.

M. Jan, L. Zaourar, and M. Pitel, Maximizing the execution rate of low-criticality tasks in mixed criticality systems, 1st Workshop on Mixed Criticality Systems (WMC), IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium), pp.43-48, 2013.

A. Burns and S. Baruah, Towards a more practical model for mixed criticality systems, 1st Workshop on Mixed Criticality Systems (WMC), IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pp.1-6, 2013.

S. Baruah, A. Burns, and Z. Guo, Scheduling Mixed-Criticality Systems to Guarantee Some Service under All Non-erroneous Behaviors, 2016 28th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS), pp.131-138, 2016.
DOI : 10.1109/ECRTS.2016.12

C. Pagetti, D. Saussié, R. Gratia, E. Noulard, and P. Siron, The ROSACE case study: From Simulink specification to multi/many-core execution, 2014 IEEE 19th Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS), pp.309-318, 2014.
DOI : 10.1109/RTAS.2014.6926012

S. Altmeyer, L. Cucu-grosjean, and R. I. Davis, Static probabilistic timing analysis for real-time systems using random replacement caches, Real-Time Systems, vol.18, issue.2/3, pp.77-123, 2015.
DOI : 10.1145/2038617.2038619

F. J. Cazorla, E. Quiñones, T. Vardanega, L. Cucu, B. Triquet et al., PROARTIS, ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, vol.12, issue.2s, pp.941-9426, 2013.
DOI : 10.1145/2465787.2465796

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00663329