Modélisation et simulation du système de stationnement pour la planification de la mobilité urbaine : application au territoire de la cité Descartes

Abstract : Parking management is a key lever for the modal orientation of urban travel. Indeed, restrictions by scarcity or price penalize the automobile mode and increase the attractiveness of alternative travel modes, which have less impact on the environment. However, restrictive management increases the difficulty of finding an available spot, cruising for parking and traffic congestion, which raises the environmental effect of each of the subsidiary car journeys. This thesis deals with the quantitative problem of the supply and demand of car parking in urban areas through the prism of eco-design to make planning more sustainable. It proposes a simulation model which allows to study parking management plans, focusing on the technical functioning of the system and its interaction with road traffic. The first part proposes a comprehensive overview of the evolution of urban parking in public policies in France, followed by a theoretical analysis of the issues and the challenges raised by an eco-design approach of parking. A systemic exploration centered on its physical, functional and spatial dimensions is then given. Finally, a methodology for diagnosing parking practices at the level of an agglomeration based on a household travel survey is developed and illustrated by an application to the Île-de-France in 2010.The second part is devoted to the spatial modeling of the parking system. It begins with a review of specific literature. Then, we propose a static treatment of the interactions between parking and road traffic at the local level. A spatialized network assignment model (ParkCap model) is developed. It enables to model the joint choices of network route and parking lot and explicitly considers supply capacities constraints and the phenomenon of cruising for parking on the road network. The model’s performance is demonstrated by two numerical examples. Lastly, the structure of the computer simulator prototype is briefly presented. The third and final part provides an application of the model to the strategic planning of parking in the district of Cité Descartes. After a territorial diagnosis of the study area and its parking system, a simulation of the 2010 reference state is implemented. The application demonstrates the ability of the ParkCap tool to simulate a real network and to evaluate several parking management plans. We extend it to a prospective study of the parking system by 2030. By anticipating the urban transformations associated with the Greater Paris Express project, three contrasting scenarios of parking supply are compared and evaluated
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Houda Boujnah. Modélisation et simulation du système de stationnement pour la planification de la mobilité urbaine : application au territoire de la cité Descartes. Infrastructures de transport. Université Paris-Est, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC1240⟩. ⟨tel-01866689⟩

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