Safe and secure model-driven design for embedded systems

Abstract : The presence of communicating embedded systems/IoTs in our daily lives have brought a myriad of benefits, from adding conveniences and entertainment, to improving the safety of our commutes and health care. However, the flaws and vulnerabilities in these devices expose their users to risks of property damage, monetary losses, and personal injury. For example, consumer vehicles, both connected and conventional, have succumbed to a variety of design flaws resulting in injuries and death. At the same time, as vehicles are increasingly connected (and in the near future, autonomous), researchers have demonstrated possible hacks on their sensors or internal control systems, including direct injection of messages on the CAN bus.Ensuring the safety of users or bystanders involves considering multiple factors. Conventional safety suggests that a system should not contain software and hardware flaws which can prevent it from correct function. `Safety of the Intended Function' involves avoiding the situations which the system or its components cannot handle, such as adverse extreme environmental conditions. Timing can be critical for certain real-time systems, as the system will need to respond to certain events, such as obstacle avoidance, within a set period to avoid dangerous situations. Finally, the safety of a system depends on its security. An attacker who can send custom commands or modify the software of the system may change its behavior and send it into various unsafe situations. Various safety and security countermeasures for embedded systems, especially connected vehicles, have been proposed. To place these countermeasures correctly requires methods of analyzing and verifying that the system meets all safety, security, and performance requirements, preferably at the early design phases to minimize costly re-work after production. This thesis discusses the safety and security considerations for embedded systems, in the context of Institut Vedecom's autonomous vehicle. Among the proposed approaches to ensure safety and security in embedded systems, Model-Driven Engineering is one such approach that covers the full design process, from elicitation of requirements, design of hardware and software, simulation/formal verification, and final code generation. This thesis proposes a modeling-based methodology for safe and secure design, based on the SysML-Sec Methodology, which involve new modeling and verification methods. Security modeling is generally performed in the last phases of design. However, security impacts the early architecture/mapping and HW/SW partitioning decisions should be made based on the ability of the architecture to satisfy security requirements. This thesis proposes how to model the security mechanisms and the impact of an attacker as relevant to the HW/SW Partitioning phase. As security protocols negatively impact performance, it becomes important to measure both the usage of hardware components and response times of the system. Overcharged components can result in unpredictable performance and undesired delays. This thesis also discusses latency measurements of safety-critical events, focusing on one critical to autonomous vehicles: braking as after obstacle detection. Together, these additions support the safe and secure design of embedded systems.
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Letitia Li. Safe and secure model-driven design for embedded systems. Embedded Systems. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLT002⟩. ⟨tel-01894734⟩

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