Etude des interactions physico-chimiques des ingrédients fonctionnels des crèmes desserts et de leurs impacts sur leurs microstructures et leurs propriétés sensorielles

Abstract : Neutral dairy desserts are composed of a large diversity of products of similar composition but different structures and textures. Their structure set up is defined by the interactions between three of their quantitatively minor components: starch, milk proteins and carrageenan. The objective of this PhD project was to better understand the chemical-physics mechanisms beyond the neutral dairy desserts structure set up and their impact on the sensory perception of the product.The study focused on single, binary and ternary mixtures containing starch. It was performed with a modified waxy maize starch, reconstituted skim milk and kappa carrageenan mostly. Using rheological and microscopic tools, different interactions were highlighted. In binary mixtures, carrageenan was found to adsorb on the starch granules. A specific study on those interactions pointed out that they depended on carrageenans' charge density and molecular weights. In ternary mixtures, preferential carrageenan / casein micelles interactions in comparison to starch / carrageenan ones were pointed out even when milk proteins were added after starch pasting in a carrageenan solution. The addition of milk before or after starch pasting led to products of same formula but different microstructures. Starch granules were in both cases embedded in a carrageenan / casein micelles network still, the starch granules states or characteristics and the network formed differed. Dispersed starch and carrageenan / milk phases were defined as the key structure parameters of neutral dairy desserts. To assess their impact on sensorial perception, nine products of same formula but built differently were produced. The evaluation was done by subjects by means of a free sorting task followed by a ranking task on free discriminating terms. Sensory differences were found between the products. These differences were characterized and correlated with instrumental attributes.This work permitted to collect numerous data on chemical-physics properties, link them to the structure set up and to their potential impact on sensory properties of dairy creams. All this knowledge would be easily used to improve tailor food development and particularly to formulate new dairy cream texture through a reverse engineering approach.
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Anne Matignon. Etude des interactions physico-chimiques des ingrédients fonctionnels des crèmes desserts et de leurs impacts sur leurs microstructures et leurs propriétés sensorielles. Alimentation et Nutrition. AgroParisTech, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013AGPT0044⟩. ⟨tel-01899743⟩

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