Effet de la variabilité microstructurale sur le comportement d’un composite UD verre/PA11 : de la caractérisation expérimentale à la modélisation multi-échelle

Abstract : In the field of transport, research for reducing the weight of structures is a continuing preoccupation for the industry. For this reason, polymer matrix composite materials are being used increasingly for structural applications. To succeed with this technological transition numerical modelling plays a significant role as cumbersome and costly experimental campaigns are being limited. This is the background to this thesis work.The material considered is composed of a thermoplastic resin (Polyamide 11) with a unidirectional glass fibre reinforcement. Under mechanical loadings, the microsctructural variability, at the constituent length scale, leads to important multi-axial stresses that need to be evaluated. This is notably true in zones where the matrix is particularly confined. Studying the microscopic scale is of paramount importance in order to understand and simulate specific strain mechanisms of the thermoplastic resin.In the first part, an experimental campaign has been conducted on the plain thermoplastic polymer. Axisymetric notched specimens were tested under uniaxial monotonous tension and monitored with in-situ X-ray synchrotron computed tomography. A cavitation phenomenon has been observed. Not only macroscopic quantities (notch opening displacement, reduction in diameter…) but also microscopic (evolution of voids considered as a cluster or individually) have been analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. A finite element model is subsequently proposed and calibrated to take into account the specific strain deformations and damage experimentally observed with this polymer.The second part is dedicated to a numerical study of the unidirectional composite material. A representation of the real microstructure has been tackled with the generation of virtual random and periodic cells in a way that nevertheless is truely morphologically representative. Micromechanics computations have been carried out and give access to strain mechanisms, to local quantities and to the composite material behaviour (in linear elasticity and beyond). Special attention is paid to the representativeness of the computed quantities. Finally, a multiscale approach is proposed. Structural computations have been possible due to a numerical homogenization based on an homogeneous equivalent medium whilst a relocalisation gives access to local quantities in critical zones of the structure.
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Pierre-Alexis Poulet. Effet de la variabilité microstructurale sur le comportement d’un composite UD verre/PA11 : de la caractérisation expérimentale à la modélisation multi-échelle. Matériaux. PSL Research University, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PSLEM050⟩. ⟨tel-01906203v2⟩

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