Multicomponent reactions for the synthesis of some nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds and studies of their biological activities

Abstract : Multicomponent reactions represent an important line of research in organic chemistry. It permits the reaction between three or more starting materials, providing adducts which are considered as synthons for the syntheses of complex molecules close to bioactive compounds. As a result of their diversity, these reactions are considered as valuable tools for the preparation of libraries of organic structures in the pharmaceutical research field. The isonitrile-based multicomponent reactions, particularly the Ugi reaction, are the most frequently employed. Despite the wide applications of this reaction, it still suffers from numerous limitations, particularly when the newly formed peptidyl position is involved in the post-condensation reactions. Due to the steric hindrance around this position, only intramolecular reactions were described in the literature. Thus we have developed effective strategies for the intermolecular reactions involving Ugi adducts through the formation of 1,3-amide dianions to increase their nucleophilicity. Accordingly, such intermediates undergo alkylation reactions with different electrophilic agents at room temperature and with excellent yields. A very simple application of this approach has been attained by coupling the allylation at the peptidyl position to a ring closure metathesis reaction. This could be achieved by introducing an allylic fragment into the starting Ugi materials, necessary for metathesis. Such protocol allowed the synthesis of various piperidines and piperidones derivatives. Moreover, examining the potential of these 1,3-amide dianion intermediates by employing more complex electrophiles, allowed us to prepare cyclic derivatives. The use of diiodomethane in particular, has opened an access to a very promising way in the synthesis of β-lactams. Simpler malonic ester amides and their derivatives could also be converted to β-lactams following the same strategy, hence, it is not only limited to Ugi adducts. Additionally, the biological activities of such newly synthesized β-lactams were examined. Finally, we extended this approach to the preparation of pyrrolidinones through an alkylation/cyclization sequence via the propargylation of these Ugi adducts. The enamine functional group in the synthesized 5-methylene-pyrrolidin-2-ones could be exploited in a Pictet-Spengler reaction allowing the synthesis of benzoindolizidine derivatives, which are close in structure to natural alkaloids. Nevertheless, the propargylation/Pictet-Spengler cascade could be successfully performed in a one-pot reaction with good yields.
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Alaa Zidan. Multicomponent reactions for the synthesis of some nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds and studies of their biological activities. Cristallography. Université Paris-Saclay; Université Ain-Shams (Le Caire), 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLY005⟩. ⟨tel-01915981⟩

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