Rhéologie des matériaux granulaires non saturés

Abstract : With this doctoral research, we report on the solid and liquid-like mechanical behaviors of wet granular materials, which exhibit viscous and capillary effects. Such systems, standing between dry and immersed granular materials, are studied both in experiments and discrete numerical simulations, from the microstructural aspects to the mechanical behavior. We therefore adopt a multiscale approach whose purposes are to understand the origins and roles of capillary and viscous effects in constitutive laws and to include a microstructural description within these laws. We are interested in the simple bridge model for the illustration of viscous and capillary effects in the case of quasistatic and inertial flows, where the confining forces, the Coulomb friction and the liquid quantity can vary. To answer such questions, this thesis is articulated around the 3 following topics :- A study based on macroscopic rheological experiments with a simple model material (monodisperse polystyrene beads, wetted with a Newtonian silicon oil) which enables us to distinguish the flow regimes and to characterize the influence of cohesive effects. The experimental framework allows for long time shearing experiments, where the materials can reach their steady state behavior. Alike dry systems, wet granular materials still exhibit a quasistatic and an inertial regime with increasing flow velocity. We show the noticeable influence of capillary effects which strongly increases the shear resistance and reduces the materials density.- X-ray microtomographic experiments enabling the microstructural study of static samples. We witness a good homogeneity of our samples whether slightly or strongly saturated. A non-negligible number of very complex capillary bonds were detected, which stresses, when compared with macroscopic rheological results, their lack of influence on the flow properties. This result is very noticeable as it demonstrates the ability of the simple bridge model to illustrate the behavior of materials which would not be included a priori within its reach.- Discrete numerical simulations allowing us to strongly improve the range of the parameters of the study, especially in the case of material characteristics such as Coulomb friction. The micromechanical study emerging from simulations, allows us to analyze anisotropy, coordination and capillary stresses questions. We underline the great importance of long-range capillary interactions when using an effective stress model. The limits of such model, usually adopted to describe the behavior in the quasistatic regime, are also tested and debated in the inertial regime. The good agreement between numerical and experimental results enabled us to validate and calibrate a numerical model which, in return, offered a reliable analysis of microstructural effects for the understanding of the mechanical behavior and for the transition from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale
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Michel Badetti. Rhéologie des matériaux granulaires non saturés. Matériaux. Université Paris-Est, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC1020⟩. ⟨tel-01917066⟩

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