Study and design of a thermodynamic system generating mechanical work from a hot source at 120°C

Abstract : Low-temperature waste-gas heat sources (< 120-150°C) exiting several industrial processes could be recovered for electricity production and constitute an effective mean to reduce primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. However, technical barriers such as low conversion efficiency, large needed heat transfer area, and the presence of chemically corrosive substances associated with high moisture content when operating in harsh environment impede their wider application. This thesis focuses on particularly energy-hungry industrial sectors characterized by presently unsolved challenges in terms of environmentally hostile low-temperature heat sources. Existing thermodynamic cycles based on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) are adapted and optimized for this temperature level. Two conventional heat recovery methods are studied more particularly: indirect and direct contact dehumidification. Optimized design methods for heat exchangers are elaborated and experimentally validated. For the indirect contact dehumidification, advanced anti-corrosion coated materials are proposed and laboratory tested. For the direct contact dehumidification, the effects of packing material and geometry on the corresponding hydraulic performances are underlined. Innovative thermodynamic cycles based on the liquid desiccant technology are investigated. An improved regeneration cycle (IRC) is developed. Compared to the conventional heat recovery technologies, the proposed “IRC” improves both net power and turbine expansion ratio besides preventing faced corrosions problems.
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Samer Maalouf. Study and design of a thermodynamic system generating mechanical work from a hot source at 120°C. Other. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2013. English. ⟨NNT : 2013ENMP0074⟩. ⟨tel-01924552⟩

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