Comportement mécano-fiabiliste de structures composites – approche matériaux

Abstract : The use of composite materials increases in the world of industry, particularly in sectors such as aeronautics, transport or energy production and this development leads to a strong production of composite structures, including large dimensions. The design of these composite structures requires a thorough knowledge of the mechanical behavior of the composite to ensure the integrity of the structure. However, the mechanical behavior of composite materials is heterogeneous in nature with a certain variability on the different mechanical parameters. This variability is caused by two main sources: the intrinsic variability of the material due to physical variations within the composite, and the variability due to defects in implementation. The thesis, which is presented, focuses on this second source of variability, namely the presence of implementation defects and its influence on the mechanical behavior of the composite. Two defects of implementation are studied in this thesis, porosity and wrinkle, following a probabilistic analysis. The first part of the study brings together all the state of the art on porosity and wrinkle defects, as well as on probabilistic analyzes in the field of composites. A second part of the study is devoted to the probabilistic characterization of porosity and wrinkle defects by analyzing the variability of each characteristic parameter of the defect and modeling it using a distribution law that are implemented in a calculation code to numerically model the experimentally observed porosity. A third part of the study focuses on the influence of porosity and wrinkle defects on quasi-static and fatigue mechanical behavior. This mechanical study compares the results of experimental tests on a healthy material, two materials with two different porosity states and two materials with a wrinkle of different dimensions, in order to be able to quantify the influence of the defect and to determine a model of degradation of mechanical properties according to the defect. The quasi-static mechanical study is supplemented by an analysis of the variance in order to separate the variability of the mechanical properties due to the defect and that due directly to the test itself. All the results of this study thus make it possible to identify the two types of defects with a set of characteristic parameters, as well as their influence on the mechanical behavior, while taking into account the variability observed on the defects and their mechanical influence, and to model numerically all these observations.
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Edouard Gauthier. Comportement mécano-fiabiliste de structures composites – approche matériaux. Matériaux. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018ENAM0031⟩. ⟨tel-01925057⟩

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