Selection-mutation dynamics with age structure : long-time behaviour and application to the evolution of life-history traits

Abstract : This thesis is divided into two parts connected by the same thread. It concerns the theoretical study and the application of mathematical models describing population dynamics. The individuals reproduce and die at rates which depend on age a and phenotypic trait. The trait is fixed duringthe life of the individual. It is modified over generations by mutations appearing during reproduction. Natural selection is modeled by introducing a density-dependent mortality rate describing competition for resources.In the first part, we study the long-term behavior of a selection-mutation partial differential equation with age structure describing such a large population. By studying the spectral properties of a family of positive operators on a measures space, we show the existence of stationary measures that can admit Dirac masses in traits maximizing fitness. When these measures admit a continuous density, we show the convergence of the solutions towards this (unique) stationary state.The second part of this thesis is motivated by a problem from the biology of aging. We want to understand the appearance and maintenance during evolution of a senescence marker observed in the species Drosophila melanogaster. For this, we introduce an individual-based model describing the dynamics of a population structured by age and by the following life history trait: the age of reproduction ending and the one where the mortality becomes non-zero. We also model the Lansing effect, which is the effect through which the “progeny of old parents do not live as long as those of young parents”. We show, under large population and rare mutation assumptions, that the evolution brings these two traits to coincide. For this, we are led to extend the canonical equation of adaptive dynamics to a situation where the fitness gradient does not admit sufficient regularity properties. The evolution of the trait is no longer described by the (unique) trajectory of an ordinary differential equation but by a set of trajectories solutions of a differential inclusion.
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Tristan Roget. Selection-mutation dynamics with age structure : long-time behaviour and application to the evolution of life-history traits. Probability [math.PR]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLX111⟩. ⟨tel-01952892⟩

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