Spectraèdres tropicaux : application à la programmation semi-définie et aux jeux à paiement moyen

Abstract : Semidefinite programming (SDP) is a fundamental tool in convex and polynomial optimization. It consists in minimizing the linear functions over the spectrahedra (sets defined by linear matrix inequalities). In particular, SDP is a generalization of linear programming.The purpose of this thesis is to study the nonarchimedean analogue of SDP, replacing the field of real numbers by the field of Puiseux series. Our methods rely on tropical geometry and, in particular, on the study of tropicalization of spectrahedra.In the first part of the thesis, we analyze the images by valuation of general semialgebraic sets defined over the Puiseux series. We show that these images have a polyhedral structure, giving the real analogue of the Bieri--Groves theorem. Subsequently, we introduce the notion of tropical spectrahedra and show that, under genericity conditions, these objects can be described explicitly by systems of polynomial inequalities of degree 2 in the tropical semifield. This generalizes the result of Yu on the tropicalization of the SDP cone.One of the most important questions about real SDPs is to characterize the sets that arise as projections of spectrahedra. In this context, Helton and Nie conjectured that every semialgebraic convex set is a projected spectrahedron. This conjecture was disproved by Scheiderer. However, we show that the conjecture is true ''up to taking the valuation'': over a real closed nonarchimedean field of Puiseux series, the convex semialgebraic sets and the projections of spectrahedra have precisely the same images by the nonarchimedean valuation.In the second part of the thesis, we study the algorithmic questions related to SDP. The basic computational problem associated with SDP over real numbers is to decide whether a spectrahedron is nonempty. It is unknown whether this problem belongs to NP in the Turing machine model, and the state-of-the-art algorithms that certify the (in)feasibility of spectrahedra are based on cylindrical decomposition or the critical points method. We show that, in the nonarchimedean setting, generic tropical spectrahedra can be described by Shapley operators associated with stochastic mean payoff games. This provides a tool to solve nonarchimedean semidefinite feasibility problems using combinatorial algorithms designed for stochastic games.In the final chapters of the thesis, we provide new complexity bounds for the value iteration algorithm, exploiting the correspondence between stochastic games and tropical convexity. We show that the number of iterations needed to solve a game is controlled by a condition number, which is related to the inner radius of the associated tropical spectrahedron. We provide general upper bounds on the condition number. To this end, we establish optimal bounds on the bit-length of stationary distributions of Markov chains. As a corollary, our estimates show that value iteration can solve ergodic mean payoff games in pseudopolynomial time, provided that the number of random positions of the game is fixed. Finally, we apply our approach to large scale random nonarchimedean SDPs.
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Mateusz Skomra. Spectraèdres tropicaux : application à la programmation semi-définie et aux jeux à paiement moyen. Optimization and Control [math.OC]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLX058⟩. ⟨tel-01958741⟩

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