Fabrication of hierarchical hybrid nanostructured electrodes based on nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes for Li-Ion batteries

Abstract : This thesis is devoted to the bottom-up fabrication of hierarchical hybrid nanostructured materials based on active vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) decorated with nanoparticles (NPs). Owing to their unique structure and electronic properties, VACNTs act as a support matrix and an excellent current collector, and thus enhance the electronic and ionic transport pathways. The nanostructuration and the confinement of sulfur (S) in a conductive host material improve its conductivity, while the nanostructuration of silicon (Si) accommodates better the volume change during the electrochemical reactions. In the first part of the thesis, we have synthesized VACNTs by a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) method directly over aluminum and copper commercial foils without any pretreatment of the substrates. In the second part, we have decorated the sidewalls and the surface of the VACNT carpets with various LIB's active electrode materials, including S and Si NPs. We have also deposited and characterized nickel (Ni) NPs on CNTs as alternative materials for the cathode electrode. No conductive additives or any polymer binder have been added to the electrode composition. The CNTs decoration has been done systematically through two different methods: wet method by electrodeposition and dry method by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The obtained hybrid structures have been electrochemically tested separately in a coin cell against a lithium counter-electrode. Regarding the S evaporationon VACNTs, and the S@VACNTs structure, these topics are investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge.Preliminary tests on the obtained nanostructured cathodes (S@VACNTs coated with alumina or polyaniline) have shown that it is possible to attain a specific capacity close to S theoretical storage capacity. The surface capacity of S@VACNTs, with 0.76 mg cm-2 of S, at C/20 rate reaches 1.15 mAh cm-2 at the first cycle. For the nanostructured anodes Si@VACNTs, with 4.11 mg cm-2 of Si showed an excellent surface capacity of 12.6 mAh cm-2, the highest value for nanostructured silicon anodes obtained so far. In the last part of the thesis, the fabricated nanostructured electrodes have been assembled in a full battery (Li2S/Si) and its electrochemical performances experimentally tested. The high and well-balanced surface capacities obtained for S and Si nanostructured electrodes pave the way for realization of high energy density, all-nanostructured LIBs and demonstrate the large potentialities of the proposed hierarchical hybrid nanostructures' concept.
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Mariam Ezzedine. Fabrication of hierarchical hybrid nanostructured electrodes based on nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes for Li-Ion batteries. Other. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLX105⟩. ⟨tel-01968037⟩

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