Formation des aérosols organiques et inorganiques en Méditerranée

Abstract : This work aims at understanding the origins and processes leading to the formation of organic aerosols (OA) and inorganic aerosols (IA) over the western Mediterranean Sea during different seasons, using the air-quality model Polyphemus. In the framework of ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment), measurements of both aerosol concentrations and properties are performed at a remote site (Ersa) on Corsica Island in the northwestern Mediterranean sea in the summers 2012, 2013 and the winter 2014. This thesis also benefits from measurements performed during flights above the western Mediterranean Sea in the summer 2014. The model is evaluated during these periods, and different processes/parameterizations are added or modified in order to have good model-to-measurements comparisons, not only of aerosol concentrations but also of their properties. Origins of aerosols are assessed through different sensitivity studies to the meteorological model, anthropogenic emissions inventory, sea-salt emissions and different input models. The contribution of marine emissions to inorganic aerosols (IA) is important, and the parameterization of sea-salt emissions is chosen such as having good comparisons to sodium measurements, which is a non-volatile compound emitted mainly by sea salts. Marine organic aerosols (OA), which are added to the model with a parameterization that uses the chlorophyll-a concentration as a proxy parameter to model the marine chemistry, contribute to OA by only 2% at the maximum. The ground-based and airborne model-to-measurements comparisons show the importance of an accurate description of shipping emissions to model sulfate and OA concentrations. However, this is not true for nitrate and ammonium concentrations, which are very dependent on the hypotheses used in the model for condensation/evaporation (thermodynamic equilibrium, mixing state).During the summers 2012 and 2013, OA concentrations are mostly of biogenic origin, which is well reproduced by the model. Measurements show important concentrations of highly oxidized and oxygenated OA. For the model to reproduce not only the concentrations but also the oxidation and hydrophilicity properties of OA, three processes to form secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from monoterpenes are added to the model : the autoxidation process leading to the formation of extremely low volatility organic compounds, the organic nitrate formation mechanism and the second generational ageing. The high oxidation and oxygenation states of OA at Ersa are well modeled when organosulfate formation is also assumed. Winter simulations show that OA are mainly of anthropogenic origin. The influence of the anthropogenic intermediate/semi-volatile organic compound (ISVOC) emissions, which are missing from emission inventories, is low in summer. Nonetheless, the role and the contribution of ISVOC appear very significant during the winter, with a large contribution from residential heating. Different parameterizations to represent the emissions and the ageing of IS-VOC are implemented in the model, namely the volatility distribution of emissions, single-step vs multi-step oxidation scheme and non-traditional volatile organic compounds (NTVOC) chemistry. Sensitivity studies show that the volatility distribution at the emission is a key parameter to improve the modeling of OA concentrations. The model reproduces well the observed concentrations, but the observed organic oxidation and oxygenation states are strongly under-estimated, stressing the potential role of autoxidation and organic nitrate from anthropogenic precursors
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Mounir Chrit. Formation des aérosols organiques et inorganiques en Méditerranée. Ingénierie de l'environnement. Université Paris-Est, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC1027⟩. ⟨tel-01971943⟩

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