Modèles d'endommagement à gradient en grandes déformations

Abstract : Gradient damage models, also known as phase-field models, are now widely used to model brittle and ductile fracture, from the onset of damage to the propagation of a crack in various materials. Yet, they have been mainly studied in the framework of small deformation, and very few studies aims at proving their relevance in a finite deformation framework. This would be more helpful for the tyre industry that deals with very large deformation problems, and has to gain insight into the prediction of the initiation of damage in its structures.The first part of this work places emphasis on finding analytical solutions to unidimensional problems of damaging viscous materials in small and large deformation.In all the cases, the evolution of damage is studied, both in the homogeneous and localised cases. Having such solutions gives a suitable basis to implement these models and validate the numerical results.A numerical part naturally follows the first one, that details the specificities of the numerical implementation of these non local models in large deformation. In order to solve the displacement and damage problems, the strategy of alternate minimisation (or staggered algorithm) is used. When solved on the reference configuration, the damage problem is the same as in small deformation, and consists in a bound constraint minimisation. The displacement problem is non linear, and a mixed finite element method is used to solve a displacement-pressure problem. A quasi-incompressible Mooney-Rivlin law is used to model the behaviour of the hyperelastic material. Various tests in 2D and 3D are performed to show that gradient damage models are perfectly able to initiate damage in sound, quasi-incompressible structures, in large deformation.In the simulations depicted above, it should be noted that the damage laws combined to the hyperelastic potential results in an initiation of damage that takes place in zones of high deformation, or in other words, in zones of high deviatoric stress. However, in some polymer materials, that are known to be quasi-incompressible, it has been shown that the initiation of damage can take place in zones of high hydrostatic pressure. This is why an important aspect of the work consists in establishing a damage law such that the material be incompressible when there is no damage, and the pressure play a role in the damage criterion. Such a model is exposed in the third part.Finally, the last part focuses on the cavitation phenomenon, that can be understood as the sudden growth of a cavity. We first study it as a purely hyperelastic bifurcation, in order to get the analytical value of the critical elongation for which cavitation occurs, in the case of a compressible isotropic neo-hookean material submitted to a radial displacement. We show that there is a competition between the cavitation phenomenon and the damage, and that depending on the ratio of the critical elongation for damage and the critical elongation for cavitation, different rupture patterns can appear.
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Blandine Crabbé. Modèles d'endommagement à gradient en grandes déformations. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLX085⟩. ⟨tel-01972230⟩

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