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Fabrication and study of solar cell modules based on silicon nanowire based radial junction solar cells

Abstract : In this thesis, we have used a low-temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) reactor to fabricate Si nanowire radial junction solar mini-modules on 5x5 cm2 glass substrates with the assistance of the laser scribing technique for the series connection of the cells.We have used fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) deposited on soda-lime glass substrates (SLG) as a back contact as well as the source of the Sn catalyst which was formed by a direct reduction of FTO using a H2 plasma. Subsequently, p-type SiNWs were grown using plasma-assisted vapor liquid solid (VLS) process, followed by the deposition of intrinsic a-Si:H and n-type µc-SiOx:H layers to achieve pin radial junction solar cells. We have obtained an energy conversion efficiency of 6.3 % with an active area of solar cells of 0.126 cm2, which is to our knowledge, the highest efficiency obtained based on FTO layers as a source of Sn catalyst.Laser scribing was used to perform a selective removal of thin-film materials in order to fabricate minimodules. With laser scribing, a monolithic series connection between adjacent RJ SiNW solar cells on the same glass substrate was achieved. In particular, the laser scribing system has been used to perform selective removal of FTO thin-film and RJ SiNWs, which are commonly known as step P1 and P2, respectively, and to perform a final scribe to isolate the active region from the rest of the substrate. The transparent top ITO contact was sputtered and cell stripes were defined using the lift-off technique (step P3).We have carried out a detailed study of the P2 laser scribe obtained with either green (532 nm) or IR (1064 nm) laser setups. The power of the laser has to be controlled as it has a direct impact on the removal of SiNW RJs and it can damage the underneath FTO contact. We have found that the scribing using a green laser produces a partial melting outside the scribed spots, unlike the IR laser which provides a cleaner scribing and less crystallized material at the edges of scribed spots. Mapping of the scribed spots using Raman spectroscopy allowed analyzing the material composition within the scanned area inside the craters left by the laser pulses. We have demonstrated that the use of the IR laser is preferable for P2 scribing because it can provide a high-quality series connection between cells.Finally, the optimized 10 cm2 SiNW RJ mini-module has reached an energy conversion efficiency of 4.37 % with power generation of 44 mW, thanks to the improved P2 laser scribing and the dense Ag grid printed using the ink-jet method. This performance represents, to the best of our knowledge, the highest reported power generation for silicon nanowire-based solar modules on glass substrates.
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Submitted on : Monday, January 14, 2019 - 11:27:20 AM
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Mutaz Al Ghzaiwat. Fabrication and study of solar cell modules based on silicon nanowire based radial junction solar cells. Materials Science [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLX101⟩. ⟨tel-01980182⟩



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