Mesure de la maturité numérique des acteurs du secteur bancaire, dans une perspective de transformation digitale

Abstract : The bank is a front-line sector of digital transformation and ranks 4th in the most digitally-transformed sectors behind IT, media and professional services (Gandhi & al, 2016). In addition, the burst of data and the need for real-time processing is a challenge for the players to meet or anticipate the needs of customers. In this way, the digital transformation of banks is emblematic of the opportunities and risks of our digital society.Studies tend to demonstrate that digital performance reflects the company's economic performance (Accenture, 2016b). It is therefore all the more important to carry out its digital transformation in order to remain or become a performing bank, especially since the average mortality of multinationals is only 40 years (Schatt, 2014).The question is where are the banks going to be in the value chain: continuing vertical integration or horizontal integration to diversify, buy or make partnerships with technological players or fintech?The prerequisite may lie in the knowledge of their current digital maturity. The model developed in this thesis makes it possible to highlight the strengths of a banking player and its perfectible points likely to feed the transformation strategy for its leaders and the related priorities. The starting point is the methodology of measuring digital maturity of any kind of organization (Fayon, Tartar, 2014) that has been challenged as part of this thesis work. Its axes, which define digital maturity, have evolved and are there to number six: Organization, Technology and Innovation, People, Offer, Environment, Strategy.The reflection has been focused on the structuring trends of digital transformation, and a focus on the case of the banking sector. She has been nourished by academic work related to the paradigm shift brought by digital technologies and those related to organizational design among others. Two surveys (one on the bank of the future, the other on the expectations of the generations in terms of banking service) and a PoC realized as part of the contactless payment on smartphone at La Poste french company have fueled the reflection to enrich our initial model of measuring digital maturity.To build the model, we have chosen to rely primarily on existing work in both areas at the heart of digital transformation, on the one hand information systems where many methodological tools have been developed (CMMI, ITIL, CobiT, etc.) and secondly marketing. Each of the indicators of the initial model was challenged by relying on the literature in the field as well as on a body of data developed for this thesis work.The scope of this measure is of two kinds. The result can make it possible for the decision makers who seize it - typically the actors of the digital transformation (Executive Committee, CDO, CTO, CMO) – feed the digital transformation strategy of the considered actor (thanks to the calculation of the maturity of the 6 levers and globally of the bank to highlight its strengths and its weaknesses, it is then necessary to exploit them in the service of its strategy). But this measure can also have a performative scope. It allows, as for all devices measuring tools, to give an "objectivized" but also "objectifying" level reached by each of the indicators and therefore accompany a reflexive process of digital transformation.A number of limitations are inherent to this thesis work in its instrumental dimension in particular. The internal coherence of the model, although tested by different analytical approaches and tests, is not exempt, by construction, from an arbitrary part. The relevance of the model, even if it has been tested partly with some business cases, remains subject to the test of generalization. In addition, the evolving nature of digital technologies and associated societal changes may make some indicators less relevant. But the performative dimension of the model could then remain.
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David Fayon. Mesure de la maturité numérique des acteurs du secteur bancaire, dans une perspective de transformation digitale. Gestion et management. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLT013⟩. ⟨tel-01984065⟩

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