Nucléation et propagation de fissures en conditions anisotropes

Abstract : Starting from an industrial issue that is cracks onset when excavating a tunnel, this work aims at giving new insights into a more general problematic which is the initiation of macroscopic cracks. Thus, general and theoretical results are established. Nevertheless, they are applied in order to give some explanations to the excavation-induced fractures observed around the deep geological repository. To begin with, an idealised geometrical model is detailed and justified. Thanks to this preliminary work, we establish that the cracks that should be taken into account are closed ones. In addition we show that it's possible for small cracks length to work on an equivalent bidimensionnal problem. This last result allows us to apply the mixed criteria. After giving the definition of a stable crack initiation length we define our own criteria to predict cracks onset. In order to do so and in order to be more in adequacy with the caracter brutal of a crack initiation, we offer through a micromecanic modelisation to deploy the usual thermodynamic approach in an adiabatic context. Different methods to compute the key quantity which is the incremental energy released rate are then built. Finally, the criteria is applied to give some justifications to the anisotropic geometry of the excavation-induced fractures. In a second part of this work, we focuse on the problematics tied to the local damage models. For instance, the notion of stability for an equilibrium state is discussed. Hill's stability critera is adapted to damage problems. Once again, it seems that an adiabatic context is more suited and the differences implied are emphasized. To conclude, we offer to investigate the localisation issue in one dimensionnal problems
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Thomas Carlioz. Nucléation et propagation de fissures en conditions anisotropes. Matériaux. Université Paris-Est, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC1247⟩. ⟨tel-01997730⟩

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