Origine de l’éclatement de grain sur des pièces forgées en Inconel 718

Abstract : Inconel 718 is a nickel base superalloy commonly used to manufacture the rotating disks of turbojet engines. Such disks are generally produced by hot forging, which involves a sequence of different deformation and annealing steps. The presence of second phase particles (delta phase in Inconel 718) is commonly exploited to limit grain growth during annealing via the Zener pinning phenomenon. Nonetheless, microstructure heterogeneity (with regards to second phase particles, hardening, texture and chemical composition) can lead to inhomogeneous grain growth during annealing. The objectives of this PhD work were to understand, model and simulate numerically the phenomenon of inhomogeneous grain growth that can occur in Inconel 718 turbine disks during the annealing steps of hot forging sequences. The physical mechanisms which may explain the occurrence of the phenomenon are investigated experimentally by performing SEM and EBSD analyses of Inconel 718 industrial pieces. The focus is placed on the influence of second phase particles and strain energy (estimated from intragranular misorientations) on the occurrence of the phenomenon. From those observations, it is inferred that the phenomenon occurs when the grain boundary driving forces overcome the Zener pinning forces; this is achieved when stored energy is present and heterogeneously distributed. Moreover, hot torsion tests are carried out to reproduce the phenomenon in laboratory, to evaluate its sensibility to thermomechanical parameters and to test the previously postulated mechanism. The validity of this mechanism is finally demonstrated by modelling numerically the phenomenon in 2D. The full field numerical model is based on a level set description of the grain boundaries in a finite element context. Microstructure evolution is simulated explicitly taking into account Zener pinning, capillarity and stored energy driven grain growth in a single framework. The effect of strain stored energy distributions (estimated from experimental data) in pinned microstructures is investigated focusing on the conditions leading to inhomogeneous grain growth.
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Andrea Agnoli. Origine de l’éclatement de grain sur des pièces forgées en Inconel 718. Science des matériaux [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013ENMP0098⟩. ⟨tel-02003459⟩

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