Contributions de la géostatistique à l'amélioration de l'estimation de la qualité de l'air

Abstract : Geostatistical methods are commonly used in air quality mapping. In France, since 2003, the PREV'AIR system has been broadcasting daily three-days forecasts as well as national and European air quality maps. They are built by a kriging of the observations using the deterministic chemistry-transport model CHIMERE outputs as an external drift. However, many issues or developments remain unresolved.The first part of the thesis aims at improving the local, national and european maps of the main regulated pollutants. Regarding the analysis (mapping of the past observations), we get back to the question of the use of explanatory variables in kriging. What are the best options for a covariate-based modelling of the underlying non stationarity, that also enables downscaling the model outputs? The statistical modelling for the deterministic component of the stochastic process is investigated, as well as the modelling for the covariance of the residual. A focus is also made on the spatial sampling of the monitoring network. The use of PM10 observations to map PM2.5, whose monitoring network is less dense, is studied and a thought is also given to the estimation in far-off extrapolation. Last, we discuss how to extend these methods to the prediction problem (mapping of the future, where no observations are available). Therefore, we could improve the PREV'AIR system which currently dissociates the time and the spatial components of the underlying process. A review of spatio-temporal methods is carried out, and some of them are evaluated.In a second part, some pragmatic though justified approximations are presented to deal with regulatory requirements. At both local and national levels, how the analyses can be used to deduce probability maps of exceedances of the regulatory thresholds? Along this line, we also come back to the question of the spatial representativeness of the monitoring stations. Last, the pragmatic approximations are confronted to non-linear estimations, theoretically more convenient to deal with non-linear functions of the concentrations. We engage a discussion to show the need of considering the appropriate estimation method to compute the surface exceeding the limit value.
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Maxime Beauchamp. Contributions de la géostatistique à l'amélioration de l'estimation de la qualité de l'air. Applications [stat.AP]. PSL Research University, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PSLEM038⟩. ⟨tel-02017922⟩

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