Modélisations stationnaires des voies ferrées : comportement et dégradation du ballast

Abstract : Recent development in rail transportation has led traffic increasing during last decade, an increase which should continue in next decade due to the future developments of railway transport. Traffic growing induces infrastructure's solicitation increasing. Railways quality is warrant of rail transport performance, but also ensure security of the rolling stock and safety of the infrastructure users. Maintaining quality of the rail network is major priority for railway infrastructure managers. Purpose of rail ballast is to distribute load of the moving trains and to ensure track geometry. Monitoring of ballast degradation is therefore essential to ensure the quality of the infrastructure.The aim of this thesis is to develop a numerical tool to anticipate the degradation and behaviour of a railway infrastructure under traffic. This tool is intended to effectively simulate the behaviour of railway ballast under numerous mobile loads cycles.A first part details the composition of railway infrastructures, specifies roles of the ballast and identifies the main lines of its behaviour.Choice is made to use finite element method to represent the ballast and an elastic-plastic behaviour model. The ballast is then treated as a continuous geomaterial responding to elastic-plastic behaviour. Therefore, in a second part, the basics of elastic-plastic modelling are exposed. Then, several existing behaviours models which present interesting elements are identified and studied.In a third part, a new behaviour model, called "frottant-compactant" is presented. It is composed with a new criterion and an original flow rule. Finally, the model is completed by taking account of materials degradation via internal friction angle decreasing.In a fourth part, the steady-states methods are exposed. These methods are specifically developed for modelling problems including moving loads. Different algorithms are implemented using Matlab coding software and using the finites elements method software COMSOL Multiphysics. Principally, the double time-scale steady-state method, newly developed, allow rapid modelling of numerous loading cycles and representation of material wear effects.In a final part, the two three-dimensional models used are presented. On a few loading cycles, various results are established depending on different behaviour models. On a very large number of load cycles, the results obtained show the evolution of plastic strains in the structure and the degradation of the material.
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Thibault Badinier. Modélisations stationnaires des voies ferrées : comportement et dégradation du ballast. Mécanique des solides [physics.class-ph]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLY020⟩. ⟨tel-02024336⟩

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