Evaluation de la rétention et du devenir d'un panel diversifié de micropolluants dans un ouvrage de biofiltration des eaux de ruissellement de voirie

Abstract : Biofiltration is a technique based on vegetated systems for the temporary storage, filtration and possible infiltration of runoff water close to the source, which may be used to manage pollutant loads associated with road runoff. The ability of this type of system to reduce loads of macropollutants, such as suspended solids and nutrients, both through the improvement of water quality and the reduction of its volume, has been established previously. However, the behavior of micropollutants in these systems remains relatively uncharacterized. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the retention and fate of micropollutants in a biofiltration system treating road runoff. It is principally focused on the in situ monitoring of a wide range of micropolltuants typical of road runoff (trace metals or TMs, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs, alkylphenols, BPA, phtalates) and global water quality parameters in two biofiltration systems located beside a highway: a vegetative filter strip and a biofiltration swale. This work involves continuous flow and water quality measurements, the sampling and analysis of runoff and infiltrated water drained from both systems (nineteen rain events over a year-and-a-half period) as well as the sampling and analysis of soil. These results are combined with a laboratory characterization of the filter media and biofilter construction materials and a stochastic modeling approach used to evaluate the annual mass balance of pollutants in the biofiltration swale. Field results highlight the ability of biofiltration to significantly reduce total concentrations of micropollutants at the event scale. Treatment is particularly effective for contaminants mainly associated with suspended solids, such as Zn, Pb and PAHs, for which median concentration reductions (EC50) exceeded 90% in both systems. EC50 observed for Cu, Cr, Ni and OP are also quite good, exceeding 70%. Treatment efficiency is lower and more variable for the other organic micropollutants. Three events, characterized by a degraded performance with respect to suspended solids and particulate pollutants, were, however, observed during a winter period when deicing salt was applied to road surfaces. Particle characteristics indicate that this behavior was due to the poor filtration of road-originated particles, probably due to an exceptional abundance of fine particles (<10 µm) in the road runoff during this period, in combination with the formation of preferential flows in the filter media due to cracking. The retention of dissolved-phase micropollutants is generally less effective than that of the particulate phase; in particular, elevated dissolved concentrations of several micropollutants (BPA, alkylphenols, phthalates) were observed during the first months of operation of the biofiltration swale. The transport of dissolved TMs appears to be facilitated by their association with dissolved organic carbon. These contaminants may also be leached from contaminated soil and road sediments. The retention of dissolved organic micropollutants is essentially limited by filter media contamination, which predates installation in the biofilter for PAHs and is attributed to pollutant emissions from construction materials for BPA, OP, NP and DEHP.In order to evaluate the systems’s ability to reduce pollutant loads and characterize the fate of pollutants in the filter media, a mass balance is evaluated at the annual scale for a selection of micropollutants. This work reveals that the reduction of pollutant loads is generally lower than the EC50 observed at the event scale due to the frequent overflow of water from the device. It also shows the significance of organic micropollutant emissions from biofiltration swale construction materials, which were much greater than the pollutant loads intercepted over the first year of operation
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Kelsey Flanagan. Evaluation de la rétention et du devenir d'un panel diversifié de micropolluants dans un ouvrage de biofiltration des eaux de ruissellement de voirie. Ingénierie de l'environnement. Université Paris-Est, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC1023⟩. ⟨tel-02066094⟩

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