L’intégration du covoiturage dans le système de mobilité francilien : hybrider le transport collectif et individuel pour asseoir l’hégémonie de l’automobile ?

Abstract : Initiatives aiming to develop carpools on a daily basis have been receiving increasing attention from private and public stakeholders since the rise of long-distance practice. This thesis analyzes how do carpooling services fit the field of public action and the transformations they cause on the mobility system in place. The thesis is structured in four parts. The theoretical and methodological framework specifies the research approach, which is anchored upon three entries: the relationship between the territory and the mobility system, the change in public action and the process of diffusion of innovations in society. These theoretical approaches are mobilized for an-swering to the research question and analyzing experiments of carpool services in the fringes of Ile-de-France (part 1). The second part traces the genealogy of carpooling and demonstrates how it becomes a new element of the public transport system and an object of public policies (part 2). We then study the diffusion process of the innovation and the extent of its integration into the public transport action (part 3), before analyzing the transformations caused on the mobility system (part 4).This research specifies how public policies promoting carpool were originally implemented to limit the negative externalities of the automobile system, and now tends to compete with the public road transport offer. This work then shows how a policy window open for the development of carpooling in France and exposes the difficulties that actors of the public action meets to appropriate this innovation. This research also presents the emergence of new forms of carpool infrastructure-related services, which favors the territorialization of carpool in the public transport policies and the integration of this mode of transport in the public’s utilities. Lastly, this research shows that, by tending towards a hybridization of public-private and individual-private transport models, carpooling un-dermines the principles of public service and promotes a liberal representation of the no-tion of general interest. In doing so, it is more likely that it strengthened the automobile system rather than it modifies it. Finally, this work demonstrate the limits of the growth and the individualization of mobility services and concludes by proposing ways to optimize carpooling by limiting the risk that the performance gains promised by this new model will reinforce, over time, the negative externalities of the automobile system
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Teddy Delaunay. L’intégration du covoiturage dans le système de mobilité francilien : hybrider le transport collectif et individuel pour asseoir l’hégémonie de l’automobile ?. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Université Paris-Est, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC1088⟩. ⟨tel-02066266⟩

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