Glissement et élongation des fluides à seuil

Abstract : Ketchup, mustard, shaving creams flow only when submitted to stresses greater than a critical stress – yield stress, these are yield stress fluids. On smooth surfaces, these fluids can flow under very small stresses; this phenomenon is the wall slip. Using gels, emulsions, clay suspensions, etc., and from rheometrical tests with original protocols and internal measurements (MRI velocimetry), we show that a minimal stress must be reached to initiate wall slip and, depending on cases, this value is either due to an edge effect or to an adhesion of the suspended elements to the wall. Above this critical value, the excess of stress is found to vary linearly with the slip velocity, except at the transition of the yield stress or using a microtextured surface: in that cases the relation becomes quadratic. The wall slip can be interpreted as the shear flow of a thin liquid layer between the yield stress fluid and the wall. However, given the complexity of the material structure in contact with the wall, the exact picture of the slip layer requires further investigations. The apparent thickness of the liquid layer seems to be independent of the concentration, the mean droplet size, the external normal forces, etc., suggesting that it depends on interactions between the suspended droplets and the surface which are much stronger than the lubricating and osmotic pressures. We also study wall slip under more complex flow conditions, by inducing an elongational flow during a traction test with smooth surfaces. The normal force measured for various materials with different microstructures shows that the yielding condition in an elongational flow is different from the standard theory, and the apparent thickness of the wall slip layer is several orders of magnitude larger than that found in shear flows
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Xiao Zhang. Glissement et élongation des fluides à seuil. Physique [physics]. Université Paris-Est, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC1037⟩. ⟨tel-02067292⟩

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