Vers la simulation de perfusion du myocarde à partir d'image tomographique scanner

Abstract : Recent advances in medical image computing have allowed automatedsystems to closely assist physicians in patient therapy. Computationaland personalized patient models benefit diagnosis, prognosisand treatment planning, with a decreased risk for the patient,as well as potentially lower cost. HeartFlow Inc. is a successfull exampleof a company providing such a service in the cardiovascularcontext. Based on patient-specific vascular model extracted from XrayCT images, they identify functionally significant disease in largecoronary arteries. Their combined anatomical and functional analysisis nonetheless limited by the image resolution. At the downstreamscale, a functional exam called Myocardium Perfusion Imaging (MPI)highlights myocardium regions with blood flow deficit. However,MPI does not functionally relate perfusion to the upstream coronarydisease.The goal of our project is to build the functional bridge betweencoronary and myocardium, by extrapolating the functional analysisfrom large coronary toward the capillary bed. This objective requiresextension from the coronary model down to the microvasculaturecombined with a functional analysis leading to the myocardium compartment.We expand a tree generation method subjected to functional principles,named Constrained Constructive Optimization, to generate multiplecompeting vascular trees. The algorithm simulates angiogenesisunder vascular volume minimization with flow-related and geometricalconstraints, adapting the simultaneous tree growths to patientpriors. This method provides a hybrid image-based and synthetic geometricmodel, starting from segmented epicardium coronary downto synthetic arterioles, filling the left ventricle myocardium.We then build a multiscale functional analysis pipeline to allowblood flow simulation from the coronaries to the myocardium. Thisis achieved with a 1D coronary model compatible with the hybridvasculature, and a spatial blood flow distribution analysis of the terminalsegments. The latter is performed using a similar nomenclatureto MPI, to enable patient-specific comparison with functional groundtruthdata.We connected the vascular anatomy to blood flow distribution inthe myocardium on several patient datasets. This multiscale frameworkpoints out several leads to refine the vascular network generationand fluid simulation methods. This patient-specific anatomicaland functional extrapolation is a first gateway toward myocardiumperfusion from X-ray CT data. Building such personalized computational model of patient could potentially help investigating cardiovascularcomplex physio-pathology, and, finally, improve the patientcare.
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Clara Jaquet. Vers la simulation de perfusion du myocarde à partir d'image tomographique scanner. Traitement des images [eess.IV]. Université Paris-Est, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018PESC1117⟩. ⟨tel-02085886⟩

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