Deployment of mixed criticality and data driven systems on multi-cores architectures

Abstract : Nowadays, the design of modern Safety-critical systems is pushing towards the integration of multiple system components onto a single shared computation platform. Mixed-Criticality Systems in particular allow critical components with a high degree of confidence (i.e. low probability of failure) to share computation resources with less/non-critical components without requiring software isolation mechanisms (as opposed to partitioned systems).Traditionally, safety-critical systems have been conceived using models of computations like data-flow graphs and real-time scheduling to obtain logical and temporal correctness. Nonetheless, resources given to data-flow representations and real-time scheduling techniques are based on worst-case analysis which often leads to an under-utilization of the computation capacity. The allocated resources are not always completely used. This under-utilization becomes more notorious for multi-core architectures where the difference between best and worst-case performance is more significant.The mixed-criticality execution model proposes a solution to the abovementioned problem. To efficiently allocate resources while ensuring safe execution of the most critical components, resources are allocated in function of the operational mode the system is in. As long as sufficient processing capabilities are available to respect deadlines, the system remains in a ‘low-criticality’ operational mode. Nonetheless, if the system demand increases, critical components are prioritized to meet their deadlines, their computation resources are increased and less/non-critical components are potentially penalized. The system is said to transition to a ‘high-criticality’ operational mode.Yet, the incorporation of mixed-criticality aspects into the data-flow model of computation is a very difficult problem as it requires to define new scheduling methods capable of handling precedence constraints and variations in timing budgets.Although mixed-criticality scheduling has been well studied for single and multi-core platforms, the problem of data-dependencies in multi-core platforms has been rarely considered. Existing methods lead to poor resource usage which contradicts the main purpose of mixed-criticality. For this reason, our first objective focuses on designing new efficient scheduling methods for data-driven mixed-criticality systems. We define a meta-heuristic producing scheduling tables for all operational modes of the system. These tables are proven to be correct, i.e. when the system demand increases, critical components will never miss a deadline. Two implementations based on existing preemptive global algorithms were developed to gain in schedulability and resource usage. In some cases these implementations schedule more than 60% of systems compared to existing approaches.While the mixed-criticality model claims that critical and non-critical components can share the same computation platform, the interruption of non-critical components degrades their availability significantly. This is a problem since non-critical components need to deliver a minimum service guarantee. In fact, recent works in mixed-criticality have recognized this limitation. For this reason, we define methods to evaluate the availability of non-critical components. To our knowledge, our evaluations are the first ones capable of quantifying availability. We also propose enhancements compatible with our scheduling methods, limiting the impact that critical components have on non-critical ones. These enhancements are evaluated thanks to probabilistic automata and have shown a considerable improvement in availability, e.g. improvements of over 2% in a context where 10-9 increases are significant.Our contributions have been integrated into an open-source framework. This tool also provides an unbiased generator used to perform evaluations of scheduling methods for data-driven mixed-criticality systems.
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Roberto Medina. Deployment of mixed criticality and data driven systems on multi-cores architectures. Embedded Systems. Université Paris-Saclay, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019SACLT004⟩. ⟨tel-02086680⟩

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